Titanium

Tititanium oretitaniantitanium spongetitaniferousbeta titaniumcommercially pure Titaniumignited the titanium armorLargest titanium producersame name
Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22.wikipedia
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Ilmenite

iron(II) titanateManaccanitemenaccanite
The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere; it is found in almost all living things, as well as bodies of water, rocks, and soils. Common titanium-containing minerals are anatase, brookite, ilmenite, perovskite, rutile, and titanite (sphene).
From a commercial perspective, ilmenite is the most important ore of titanium.

Titanium dioxide

TiO 2 titaniatitanium white
The most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.

Titanium tetrachloride

TiCl 4 titanium(IV) chloridetetrachloridotitanium
Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (TiCl 3 ), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.
It is an important intermediate in the production of titanium metal and the pigment titanium dioxide.

Kroll process

Krollprocess
The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter processes.
The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium.

William Gregor

Gregor, WilliamW. Gregor
Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans of Greek mythology.
William Gregor (25 December 1761 – 11 June 1817) was the British clergyman and mineralogist who discovered the elemental metal titanium.

Martin Heinrich Klaproth

Martin KlaprothKlaprothH. Klaproth
Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans of Greek mythology.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).

Hunter process

The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter processes.
The Hunter process was the first industrial process to produce pure ductile metallic titanium.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

Implant (medicine)

implantimplantsmedical implant
Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agriculture (farming), medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.
The surface of implants that contact the body might be made of a biomedical material such as titanium, silicone, or apatite depending on what is the most functional.

Zirconium

Zrzirconium monoxide 90 Zr
Although they have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table, titanium and zirconium differ in many chemical and physical properties.
It is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that closely resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium.

Transition metal

transition metalstransition elementtransition-metal
It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength.
The maximum oxidation state in the first row transition metals is equal to the number of valence electrons from titanium (+4) up to manganese (+7), but decreases in the later elements.

Steel

steel industrysteelworkersteels
In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as strong as some steels, but less dense.
Common alloying elements include: manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium, tungsten, cobalt, and niobium.

Refractory metals

refractory metalhigh melting pointshigh melting temperatures
The relatively high melting point (more than 1,650 °C or 3,000 °F) makes it useful as a refractory metal.
The five elements niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten and rhenium are included in all definitions, while the wider definition, including all elements with a melting point above 2123 K, includes a varying number of nine additional elements: titanium, vanadium, chromium, zirconium, hafnium, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium and iridium.

Perovskite

perovskitesABO 3 mineral
Common titanium-containing minerals are anatase, brookite, ilmenite, perovskite, rutile, and titanite (sphene).
Perovskite (pronunciation: ) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (CaTiO 3 ).

Passivation (chemistry)

passivationsurface passivationpassivating
It is, however, slow to react with water and air at ambient temperatures because it forms a passive oxide coating that protects the bulk metal from further oxidation.
Corrosion coating reduces the rate of corrosion by varying degrees, depending on the kind of base metal and its environment, and is notably slower in room-temperature air for aluminium, chromium, zinc, titanium, and silicon (a metalloid); the shell of corrosion inhibits deeper corrosion, and operates as one form of passivation.

Titanite

sphene
Common titanium-containing minerals are anatase, brookite, ilmenite, perovskite, rutile, and titanite (sphene).
Titanite, or sphene (from the Greek sphenos, meaning wedge ), is a calcium titanium nesosilicate mineral, CaTiSiO 5.

Paramagnetism

paramagneticparamagnetParamagnetic materials
It is paramagnetic and has fairly low electrical and thermal conductivity compared to other metals.
Paramagnetic materials include aluminium, oxygen, titanium, and iron oxide (FeO).

Specific strength

strength-to-weight ratiostrength to weight ratiotenacity
As a metal, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio.
These materials and others such as titanium, aluminium, magnesium and high strength steel alloys are widely used in aerospace and other applications where weight savings are worth the higher material cost.

Fatigue limit

fatigue strengthendurance limitendurance test
Like steel structures, those made from titanium have a fatigue limit that guarantees longevity in some applications.
Ferrous alloys and titanium alloys have a distinct limit.

Vanadium

Vvanadium steelV 3 Si
Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agriculture (farming), medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.
The electron capture reactions lead to the formation of element 22 (titanium) isotopes, while beta decay leads to element 24 (chromium) isotopes.

Isotopes of titanium

titanium-44 44 Tititanium isotope
At least 21 radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable of which are 44 Ti with a half-life of 63 years; 45 Ti, 184.8 minutes; 51 Ti, 5.76 minutes; and 52 Ti, 1.7 minutes.
Naturally occurring titanium ( 22 Ti) is composed of five stable isotopes; 46 Ti, 47 Ti, 48 Ti, 49 Ti and 50 Ti with 48 Ti being the most abundant (73.8% natural abundance).

Sierra Leone

Sierra LeoneanRepublic of Sierra LeoneSLE
Significant titanium-bearing ilmenite deposits exist in western Australia, Canada, China, India, Mozambique, New Zealand, Norway, Sierra Leone, South Africa, and Ukraine.
It is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, is a major producer of gold, and has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile.

Alloy

alloysmetal alloyalloying
Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agriculture (farming), medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.
For example, in its liquid state, titanium is a very strong solvent capable of dissolving most metals and elements.

Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

Earth's crustmost abundant element in the Earth's crustat relatively trace concentrations of parts per million each
Titanium is the ninth-most abundant element in Earth's crust (0.63% by mass) and the seventh-most abundant metal.

Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
As a metal, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio.
Other significant metallic alloys are those of aluminium, titanium, copper and magnesium.