Dobro with titlo, the Cyrillic numeral four
Suzdal Kremlin clock
"Lord" (gospod, господь)
Frequently used sigla found in contemporary Church Slavonic
A page from the Codex Zographensis showing simple overline-shaped titlos.

Extended diacritic symbol initially used in early Cyrillic and Glagolitic manuscripts, e.g., in Old Church Slavonic and Old East Slavic languages.

- Titlo

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Glyph added to a letter or to a basic glyph.

Genesis 1:9 "And God said, Let the waters be collected". Letters in black, niqqud in red, cantillation in blue
Hangul, the Korean alphabet
Blackboard used in class at Harvard shows students' efforts at placing the ü and acute accent diacritic used in Spanish orthography.

Other uses include the Early Cyrillic titlo stroke ( ◌҃ ) and the Hebrew gershayim ( ״ ), which, respectively, mark abbreviations or acronyms, and Greek diacritical marks, which showed that letters of the alphabet were being used as numerals.

Nomina sacra

Abbreviation of several frequently occurring divine names or titles, especially in Greek manuscripts of Holy Scripture.

Two nomina sacra are highlighted, and, representing of/from Jesus and of/from God (as these are genitives) respectively, in this passage from John 1 in Codex Vaticanus (B), 4th century
Nomina sacra IC XC, from the Greek ΙΗΣΟΥΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (Jesus Christ - the letter C on the icon being koine Greek Σ). Detail from an icon at the Troyan Monastery in Bulgaria. See complete icon

Nomina sacra also occur in some form in Latin, Coptic, Armenian (indicated by the pativ), Gothic, Old Nubian, and Cyrillic (indicated by the titlo).

Scribal abbreviation

Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum) are abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in various languages, including Latin, Greek, Old English and Old Norse.

Malmesbury Abbey early 15th-century Latin Vulgate Bible manuscript of Book of Numbers 1:24-26 with many abbreviations, 1407
Scribal abbreviation "iħm xp̄m ⁊ dm̄" for "ihesum christum et deum" in a manuscript of the Epistle to the Galatians.
Sigla frequently used in contemporary Church Slavonic
Examples for suspension type
Examples of independent marks
Examples for relative marks
Entries for Croydon and Cheam, Surrey, in Domesday Book (1086), as published using record type in 1783.

Many common long roots and nouns describing sacred persons are abbreviated and written under the special diacritic symbol titlo, as shown in the figure at the right.

Cyrillic numerals

Cyrillic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the late 10th century.

Reverse of silver half ruble (left) and copper beard token featuring the year 1705 in Cyrillic numerals (҂АѰЕ)
Tower clock with Cyrillic numerals, in Suzdal
Modifying signs used to denote values 1000 and greater. For example, denotes 1 million.

To distinguish numbers from text, a titlo is sometimes drawn over the numbers, or they are set apart with dots.

Early Cyrillic alphabet

Writing system that was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the late 9th century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Slavic people living near the Byzantine Empire in South East and Central Europe.

Codex Suprasliensis
Gospels of Tsar Ivan Alexander
Bulgar translation of Manasses chronicle
Mostich tomb stone
ℓ 1
ℓ 150
ℓ 152
ℓ 179 Old Testament, Genesis
ℓ 183 folio 2
ℓ 296 folio 6 verso
Ostromir Gospels
Sava's book
Khitrovo Gospels
Miroslav Gospel
Arkhangelsk Gospel
Andronikov Gospels
Capital letters of the early Cyrillic alphabet

A titlo over a sequence of letters indicated their use as a number; usually this was accompanied by a dot on either side of the letter.

Church Slavonic

Conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Eastern Orthodox Church in Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Serbia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Slovenia and Croatia.

An example of Russian Church Slavonic computer typography

The letters ksi, psi, omega, ot, and izhitsa are kept, as are the letter-based denotation of numerical values, the use of stress accents, and the abbreviations or titla for nomina sacra.

Omega (Cyrillic)

Letter used in the early Cyrillic alphabet.

It is represented in Unicode 5.1 by the misnamed character omega with titlo.


Monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a religious symbol within the Christian Church.

Chi-Rho symbol with Alpha and Omega on a 4th-century sarcophagus (Vatican Museums)
A Chi Rho combined with Alpha and Omega, in 1669 labelled Chrismon Sancti Ambrosii,  Milan Cathedral
IHS Christogram embossed on an 1864 leather-bound King James Bible
Lhq-inscription on a Japanese lantern
IHS or JHS Christogram of western Christianity
Medieval-style IHC monogram
Intertwined IHS monogram, Saint-Martin's Church, L'Isle-Adam, Val-d'Oise
IHC monogram from Clontuskert Abbey, Ireland
The Jesuit emblem from a 1586 print
Door at Church of the Good Shepherd (Rosemont, Pennsylvania) showing (from left) arms of the parish; Marian monogram; the IHS Christogram; and arms of the Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania
Depiction of the "ΙϹ ΧϹ ΝΙΚΑ" arrangement in medieval Greek tradition
"ΙϹ ΧϹ ΝΙΚΑ" cross on the obverse of a 12th-century Sicilian coin (Roger II)
Christ Pantocrator on the Holy Crown of Hungary (12th century)
Christ Pantocrator, Church of the Holy Sepulchre (1810)

In Eastern Christianity, the most widely used Christogram is a four-letter abbreviation, ΙϹ ΧϹ—a traditional abbreviation of the Greek words for "Jesus Christ" (i.e., the first and last letters of each of the words "ΙΗϹΟΥϹ ΧΡΙϹΤΟϹ", with the lunate sigma "Ϲ" common in medieval Greek), and written with titlo (diacritic) denoting scribal abbreviation.

Old Permic script

A "highly idiosyncratic adaptation" of the Cyrillic script once used to write medieval Komi (Permic).

Wikipedia logo in Old Permic and Cyrillic script

A Cyrillic combining titlo is used to indicate numerals.


One of the historic diacritical signs of Cyrillic that was used in Old Church Slavonic, later medieval Cyrillic literary traditions and modern Church Slavonic.

Example of the Cyrillic script. Excerpt from the manuscript "Bdinski Zbornik". Written in 1360.

It is a modification of titlo adapted for covering (hence its name, Russian for 'covering') combining Cyrillic letters (so called letter-titlos).