Tobacco smoking

A woman smoking a cigarette, the most common method of tobacco smoking
Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex, 16th century.
Gentlemen Smoking and Playing Backgammon in an Interior by Dirck Hals, 1627
Bonsack's cigarette rolling machine, as shown on U.S. patent 238,640
A lengthy study conducted in order to establish the strong association necessary for legislative action (US cigarette consumption per person blue, male lung cancer rate brown)
Tendu Patta (Leaf) collection for Beedi industries
A graph that shows the efficiency of smoking as a way to absorb nicotine compared to other forms of intake.
Sigmund Freud, whose doctor assisted his suicide because of oral cancer caused by smoking
Common adverse effects of tobacco smoking. The more common effects are in bold face.
Skull with a burning cigarette, by Vincent van Gogh.
An enclosed smoking area in a Japanese train station. Notice the air vent on the roof.

Practice of burning tobacco and ingesting the smoke that is produced.

- Tobacco smoking
A woman smoking a cigarette, the most common method of tobacco smoking

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Endoscopic image of an esophageal adenocarcinoma

Esophageal cancer

Cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

Cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.

Endoscopic image of an esophageal adenocarcinoma
Esophageal cancer (lower part) as a result of Barrettʼs esophagus
Esophageal cancer as shown by a filling defect during an upper GI series
Esophageal stent for esophageal cancer
Esophageal stent for esophageal cancer
Before and after a total esophagectomy
Typical scar lines after the two main methods of surgery
Death from esophageal cancer per million persons in 2012
Endoscopic image of Barrett esophagus – a frequent precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma
Endoscopy and radial endoscopic ultrasound images of a submucosal tumor in the central portion of the esophagus
Contrast CT scan showing an esophageal tumor (axial view)
Contrast CT scan showing an esophageal tumor (coronal view)
Esophageal cancer
Micrograph showing histopathological appearance of an esophageal adenocarcinoma (dark blue – upper-left of image) and normal squamous epithelium (upper-right of image) at H&E staining
T1, T2, and T3 stages of esophageal cancer
Stage T4 esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer with spread to lymph nodes
Internal radiotherapy for esophageal cancer
Self-expandable metallic stents are sometimes used for palliative care

Squamous-cell carcinoma is linked to lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol.

Larynx cancer – endoscopic view

Laryngeal cancer

Laryngeal cancers are mostly squamous-cell carcinomas, reflecting their origin from the epithelium of the larynx.

Laryngeal cancers are mostly squamous-cell carcinomas, reflecting their origin from the epithelium of the larynx.

Larynx cancer – endoscopic view
Larynx and nearby structures
Cavitas nasi: Nasal cavity
Cavis orum: oral cavity
Glottis: Larynx
Plica vocalis: Vocal cords
Trachea
Oesophagus: Esophagus
Larynx, removed
At right: Fingertip,
At the bottom: Holder

The most important risk factor for laryngeal cancer is tobacco smoking.

A vaporization heat wand and vaporization chamber bowl used to deliver vapor through a water pipe

Vaporizer (inhalation device)

Device used to vaporize substances for inhalation.

Device used to vaporize substances for inhalation.

A vaporization heat wand and vaporization chamber bowl used to deliver vapor through a water pipe
Various types of electronic cigarettes.
Vaporizer with water-cooling
A conduction-style vaporizer
A passive-convection "vaporization pipe" with flame filter
A portable radiation vaporiser
A Storz & Bickel Volcano, a forced-air vaporizer. The detachable balloon (top) fills with vapors that are then inhaled

An electronic cigarette is a handheld battery-powered vaporizer that simulates smoking by providing some of the behavioral aspects of smoking, including the hand-to-mouth action of smoking, but without combusting tobacco.

Richard Doll in 2002

Richard Doll

British physician who became an epidemiologist in the mid-20th century and made important contributions to that discipline.

British physician who became an epidemiologist in the mid-20th century and made important contributions to that discipline.

Richard Doll in 2002
The Richard Doll Building, Oxford.

He was a pioneer in research linking smoking to health problems.

General structure of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds

Acrolein

Simplest unsaturated aldehyde.

Simplest unsaturated aldehyde.

General structure of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds

Connections exist between acrolein gas in the smoke from tobacco cigarettes and the risk of lung cancer.

Lorillard Tobacco Company

American tobacco company that marketed cigarettes under the brand names Newport, Maverick, Old Gold, Kent, True, Satin, and Max.

American tobacco company that marketed cigarettes under the brand names Newport, Maverick, Old Gold, Kent, True, Satin, and Max.

The Lorillard hogshead in 1789 featuring a Native American smoking
Lorillard Snuff Mill, built 1840, photo 1936
Billboard in Denver promoting Old Gold cigarettes (May 1972)

Testifying under oath before Congress in 1994, Lorillard's CEO Andrew Tisch said that he did not believe that nicotine was addictive nor that cigarette smoking caused cancer.

The medical students in Jakarta demonstrate against tobacco a day before World No Tobacco Day, at Bundaran Hotel Indonesia, Central Jakarta, Indonesia, May 30, 2010.

Tobacco control

The medical students in Jakarta demonstrate against tobacco a day before World No Tobacco Day, at Bundaran Hotel Indonesia, Central Jakarta, Indonesia, May 30, 2010.
Tobacco control activists in Mumbai, 2009

Tobacco control is a field of international public health science, policy and practice dedicated to addressing tobacco use and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality it causes.

Advanced centrilobular emphysema showing total lobule involvement on the left side

Emphysema

Lower respiratory tract disease, characterised by air-filled spaces in the lungs, that can vary in size and may be very large.

Lower respiratory tract disease, characterised by air-filled spaces in the lungs, that can vary in size and may be very large.

Advanced centrilobular emphysema showing total lobule involvement on the left side
Diagram of aveoli with emphysema
CT scan of bullous emphysema
Stained lung tissue from end-stage emphysema.
A large bulla and a smaller bleb illustrated
Giovanni Battista Morgagni, who recorded one of the earliest descriptions of emphysema in 1769

Emphysema usually affects the middle aged or older population because it takes time to develop with the effects of tobacco smoking, and other risk factors.

Constitution of the United States

Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act

Constitution of the United States

The Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act is a 1970 federal law in the United States designed to limit the practice of tobacco smoking.

United States

Country primarily located in North America.

Country primarily located in North America.

Cliff Palace in Colorado, built by the Native American Puebloans between AD 1190 and 1260
The original Thirteen Colonies (shown in red) in 1775
Declaration of Independence, a painting by John Trumbull, depicts the Committee of Five presenting the draft of the Declaration to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, July 4, 1776.
Territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917
The Battle of Gettysburg, fought between Union and Confederate forces on July 1–3, 1863 around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was the deadliest of all Civil War battles. With more than 51,000 casualties, it marked a turning point in the Union's ultimate victory in the war.
U.S. Marines raising the American flag on Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in one of the most iconic images of World War II
Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, August 1963.
U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev at the Geneva Summit, February 1985
The World Trade Center in New York City burning from the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda in 2001
Topographic map of the United States.
A map showing climate regions in the United States
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.
Map of the United States showing the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the five major U.S. territories
The headquarters of the United Nations, of which the U.S. is a founding member, has been situated in Midtown Manhattan since 1952.
U.S. Government spending and revenue from 1792 to 2018
The Pentagon, located in Arlington, Virginia across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., is home to the U.S. Department of Defense.
Total incarceration in the United States by year (1920–2014)
A proportional representation of United States exports, 2019
Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, July 1969
Wealth inequality in the U.S. increased between 1989 and 2013.
The Interstate Highway System in the contiguous United States, which extends 46876 mi
Most prominent religion by state according to a 2014 Pew Research study
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, the primary teaching hospital of the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds
The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson, is one of the many public colleges and universities in the United States. Some 80% of U.S. college students attend these types of institutions.
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France, has become an iconic symbol of the American Dream.
Mark Twain, American author and humorist
Roast turkey, a traditional menu item of an American Thanksgiving dinner, November 2021
Grammy Museum at L.A. Live in Los Angeles, April 2009
The Hollywood Sign in Los Angeles, California, September 2015
The headquarters of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) at Rockefeller Plaza in New York City
"the united states of America", April 6, 1776
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression.
Rock formations in the Grand Canyon, northern Arizona
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.
The amount of US debt, measured as a percentage of GDP from 1790 to 2018
The nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73)
The New York City Police Department is the nation's largest municipal law enforcement agency.
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street in New York City
Percentage of respondents in the United States saying that religion is "very important" or "somewhat important" in their lives (2014)
The Texas Medical Center in downtown Houston is the largest medical complex in the world.

The most harmful risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumtion.