Tobacco smoking

A woman smoking a cigarette, the most common method of tobacco smoking
Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex, 16th century.
Gentlemen Smoking and Playing Backgammon in an Interior by Dirck Hals, 1627
Bonsack's cigarette rolling machine, as shown on U.S. patent 238,640
A lengthy study conducted in order to establish the strong association necessary for legislative action (US cigarette consumption per person blue, male lung cancer rate brown)
Tendu Patta (Leaf) collection for Beedi industries
A graph that shows the efficiency of smoking as a way to absorb nicotine compared to other forms of intake.
Sigmund Freud, whose doctor assisted his suicide because of oral cancer caused by smoking
Common adverse effects of tobacco smoking. The more common effects are in bold face.
Skull with a burning cigarette, by Vincent van Gogh.
An enclosed smoking area in a Japanese train station. Notice the air vent on the roof.

Practice of burning tobacco and ingesting the smoke that is produced.

- Tobacco smoking
A woman smoking a cigarette, the most common method of tobacco smoking

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Title page

A Counterblaste to Tobacco

Title page
James VI and I

A Counterblaste to Tobacco is a treatise written by King James VI of Scotland and I of England in 1604, in which he expresses his distaste for tobacco, particularly tobacco smoking.

Micrograph of an emphysematous lung; emphysema is a common respiratory disease, strongly associated with smoking. H&E stain.

Respiratory disease

Respiratory diseases, or lung diseases, are pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange difficult in air-breathing animals.

Respiratory diseases, or lung diseases, are pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange difficult in air-breathing animals.

Micrograph of an emphysematous lung; emphysema is a common respiratory disease, strongly associated with smoking. H&E stain.
Age-standardised disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates from respiratory diseases by country (per 100,000 inhabitants).
Classic steeple sign indicating Croup
Pulmonary interstitial emphysema
Deaths from respiratory diseases per million persons in 2012

One common cause of COPD including emphysema, and chronic bronchitis, is tobacco smoking, and common causes of bronchiectasis include severe infections and cystic fibrosis.

A woman smoking a cigarette, the most common method of tobacco smoking

Third-hand smoke

A woman smoking a cigarette, the most common method of tobacco smoking

Third-hand smoke is contamination by tobacco smoke that lingers following the extinguishing of a cigarette, cigar, or other combustible tobacco product.

Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. The inset image shows a detailed view of the lung's airways and air sacs in cross-section.
Figure B shows fibrosis (scarring) in the lungs. The inset image shows a detailed view of the fibrosis and how it damages the airways and air sacs.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Rare, progressive illness of the respiratory system, characterized by the thickening and stiffening of lung tissue, associated with the formation of scar tissue.

Rare, progressive illness of the respiratory system, characterized by the thickening and stiffening of lung tissue, associated with the formation of scar tissue.

Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. The inset image shows a detailed view of the lung's airways and air sacs in cross-section.
Figure B shows fibrosis (scarring) in the lungs. The inset image shows a detailed view of the fibrosis and how it damages the airways and air sacs.
Clubbing of the fingers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Classification of IIPs.
A chest radiograph of a patient with IPF. Note the small lung fields and peripheral pattern of reticulonodular opacification.
High-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest of a patient with IPF. The main features are of a peripheral, predominantly basal pattern of coarse reticulation with honeycombing
Photomicrograph of the histopathological appearances of usual interstitial pneumonia. High-power magnification (on the right) shows a focus of fibroblastic proliferation, close to an area of fibrosis within which a mild, non-specific, chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate can be observed. In the subpleural space, a typical honeycombing aspect can be recognized.
Comparison of the 5-year survival rate for IPF and common malignancies. Adapted from Bjoraker et al. 1998.

Risk factors include cigarette smoking, acid reflux disease (GERD), certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

Illustration of Parkinson's disease by William Richard Gowers, first published in A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System (1886)

Parkinson's disease

Long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

Long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

Illustration of Parkinson's disease by William Richard Gowers, first published in A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System (1886)
A man with PD displaying a flexed walking posture pictured in 1892
Handwriting of a person affected by PD
Parkin crystal structure
A Lewy body (stained brown) in a brain cell of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease: The brown colour is positive immunohistochemistry staining for alpha-synuclein.
An illustration of the dopamine pathways throughout the brain.
"Hot Cross Bun" sign that is commonly found in MRI of Multiple System Atrophy.
Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease
COMT metabolizes levodopa to 3-O-methyldopa. COMT inhibitors help stop this reaction, allowing for more levodopa to cross the blood-brain barrier and become dopamine where it is needed.
Placement of an electrode into the brain: The head is stabilised in a frame for stereotactic surgery.
Deaths from PD per million persons in 2012
Jean-Martin Charcot, who made important contributions to the understanding of the disease and proposed its current name honoring James Parkinson
"Parkinson's awareness" logo with red tulip symbol
Muhammad Ali at the World Economic Forum in Davos, at the age of 64. He had shown signs of parkinsonism from the age of 38 until his death.

Coffee drinkers, tea drinkers, and tobacco smokers are at a reduced risk.

3D medical illustration showing the cancer formation in the tissues of the oropharynx

Oropharyngeal cancer

Disease in which abnormal cells with the potential to both grow locally and spread to other parts of the body are found in the oral cavity, in the tissue of the part of the throat (oropharynx) that includes the base of the tongue, the tonsils, the soft palate, and the walls of the pharynx.

Disease in which abnormal cells with the potential to both grow locally and spread to other parts of the body are found in the oral cavity, in the tissue of the part of the throat (oropharynx) that includes the base of the tongue, the tonsils, the soft palate, and the walls of the pharynx.

3D medical illustration showing the cancer formation in the tissues of the oropharynx
Oropharyngeal cancer (from right tonsil, HPV-negative), T4a N2c, 48 year old man.

Smoking and chewing tobacco (see Health effects of tobacco);