Tocotrienol

General chemical structure of tocotrienols. 
alpha(α)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = Me, R3 = Me; beta(β)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = H, R3= Me; gamma(γ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = Me, R3= Me; delta(δ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = H, R3= Me

The vitamin E family comprise four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta).

- Tocotrienol
General chemical structure of tocotrienols. 
alpha(α)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = Me, R3 = Me; beta(β)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = H, R3= Me; gamma(γ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = Me, R3= Me; delta(δ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = H, R3= Me

26 related topics

Relevance

RRR stereoisomer of α-tocopherol, bonds around the stereocenters are shown as dashed lines (pointing down) or wedges (pointing up).

Tocopherol

Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.

Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.

RRR stereoisomer of α-tocopherol, bonds around the stereocenters are shown as dashed lines (pointing down) or wedges (pointing up).
Tocopherols function by donating H atoms to radicals (X).
α-tocopheryl acetate, an acetate ester of α-tocopherol

Tocotrienols, which are related compounds, also have vitamin E activity.

Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling

Palm oil

Edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palms.

Edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palms.

Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling
Oil palms (Elaeis guineensis)
Oil palm fruits on the tree
An oil palm stem, weighing about 10 kg, with some of its fruits picked
A palm oil plantation in Indonesia
A palm oil plantation in Malaysia
A satellite image showing deforestation in Malaysian Borneo to allow the plantation of oil palm
In Borneo, the forest (F), is being replaced by oil palm plantations (G). These changes are irreversible for all practical purposes (H).
Roundtable No 2 (RT2) in Zurich in 2005
Left, reddish palm oil made from the pulp of oil palm fruit. Right, clear palm kernel oil made from the kernels

Unrefined palm oil is a significant source of tocotrienol, part of the vitamin E family.

Structure of the antioxidant, glutathione

Antioxidant

Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation, a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals and chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms.

Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation, a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals and chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms.

Structure of the antioxidant, glutathione
Structure of the metal chelator phytic acid
The structure of the antioxidant vitamin ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
The free radical mechanism of lipid peroxidation
Decameric structure of AhpC, a bacterial 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin from Salmonella typhimurium
Substituted phenols and derivatives of phenylenediamine are common antioxidants used to inhibit gum formation in gasoline (petrol).
Fruits and vegetables are good sources of antioxidant vitamins C and E.

Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of eight related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties.

Bottle of rice bran oil

Rice bran oil

Oil extracted from the hard outer brown layer of rice called chaff .

Oil extracted from the hard outer brown layer of rice called chaff .

Bottle of rice bran oil

Also present are tocopherols and tocotrienols (two types of vitamin E) and phytosterols.

General chemical structure of tocotrienols. 
alpha(α)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = Me, R3 = Me; beta(β)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = H, R3= Me; gamma(γ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = Me, R3= Me; delta(δ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = H, R3= Me

Γ-Tocotrienol

General chemical structure of tocotrienols. 
alpha(α)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = Me, R3 = Me; beta(β)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = H, R3= Me; gamma(γ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = Me, R3= Me; delta(δ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = H, R3= Me

γ-Tocotrienol is one of the four types of tocotrienol, a type of vitamin E.

General chemical structure of tocotrienols. 
alpha(α)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = Me, R3 = Me; beta(β)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = H, R3= Me; gamma(γ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = Me, R3= Me; delta(δ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = H, R3= Me

Α-Tocotrienol

General chemical structure of tocotrienols. 
alpha(α)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = Me, R3 = Me; beta(β)-Tocotrienol: R1 = Me, R2 = H, R3= Me; gamma(γ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = Me, R3= Me; delta(δ)-Tocotrienol: R1 = H, R2 = H, R3= Me

α-Tocotrienol is a form of tocotrienol and one of the chemical compounds that is considered vitamin E.

Bixa orellana

Shrub native to Central America.

Shrub native to Central America.

Achiote flower
Mature achiote pods, showing the red seeds
Oil of Bixa orellana
With fruits in Hyderabad, India
Fruit in Hyderabad, India
Split seed pod
Flower closeup
Fruit
Bixa orellana - MHNT

Annatto oil is also rich in tocotrienols, beta-carotene, essential oils, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, and vitamin C.

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy has a mitochondrial inheritance pattern.

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

Mitochondrially inherited (transmitted from mother to offspring) degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that leads to an acute or subacute loss of central vision; it predominantly affects young adult males.

Mitochondrially inherited (transmitted from mother to offspring) degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that leads to an acute or subacute loss of central vision; it predominantly affects young adult males.

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy has a mitochondrial inheritance pattern.

α-Tocotrienol-quinone, a vitamin E metabolite, has had some success in small open-label trials in reversing early onset vision loss.

List of MeSH codes (D03)

Partial list of the "D" codes for Medical Subject Headings , as defined by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Partial list of the "D" codes for Medical Subject Headings , as defined by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM).

tocotrienols

The RRR alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E

Α-Tocopherol

Type of vitamin E.

Type of vitamin E.

The RRR alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E

Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.