Toledo, Spain

ToledoToledancity of ToledoToletumAmphitheatre of ToletumAñover de TajoDay of the DitchFort ToledoHistoric Centre of Toledohistory
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.wikipedia
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Castilla–La Mancha

Autonomous Community of Castilla–La ManchaCastilla-La ManchaCastilla La Mancha
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Its capital city is Toledo, and its judicial capital city is Albacete.

Councils of Toledo

Council of ToledoSecond Council of ToledoSynod of Toledo
It was also the capital from 542 to 725 AD of the ancient Visigothic kingdom, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, and the location of historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo.
From the 5th century to the 7th century AD, about thirty synods, variously counted, were held at Toledo in what would come to be part of Spain.

Visigothic Kingdom

VisigothsVisigothicKing
It was also the capital from 542 to 725 AD of the ancient Visigothic kingdom, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, and the location of historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo.
The kingdom of the 6th and 7th centuries is sometimes called the regnum Toletanum after the new capital of Toledo.

Judah Halevi

Judah ha-LeviYehuda HaleviRabbi Yehuda Halevi
People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X, Israeli ben Joseph, Halevi and El Greco.
He was born in Spain, either in Toledo or Tudela, in 1075 or 1086, and died shortly after arriving in the Holy Land in 1141, at that point the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Garcilaso de la Vega (poet)

Garcilaso de la VegaGarcilasoGarcilaso de la '''Vega
People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X, Israeli ben Joseph, Halevi and El Greco.
Garcilaso was born in the Spanish city of Toledo between 1498 and 1503.

Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī

al-Zarqalial-ZarqālīArzachel
People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X, Israeli ben Joseph, Halevi and El Greco.
He lived in Toledo, Al-Andalus before moving to Córdoba later in his life.

El Greco

GrecoDomenikos TheotokopoulosDominikos Theotokópoulos
People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X, Israeli ben Joseph, Halevi and El Greco.
In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death.

Isaac Israeli ben Joseph

Isaac IsraeliIsaac Israeli the YoungerIsraeli ben Joseph
People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X, Israeli ben Joseph, Halevi and El Greco.
Isaac Israeli ben Joseph or Yitzhak ben Yosef (often known as Isaac Israeli the Younger) was a Spanish-Jewish astronomer/astrologer who flourished at Toledo in the first half of the fourteenth century.

Brunhilda of Austrasia

BrunhildaQueen BrunhildaBrunehaut
People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X, Israeli ben Joseph, Halevi and El Greco.
Brunhilda was possibly born about 543 in the Visigothic capital of Toledo, the younger of the two daughters of Athanagild and Goiswintha.

Carpetani

CarpetaniaKarpētanoi
At that time, Toletum was a city of the Carpetani tribe, and part of the region of Carpetania.
Since the 5th century BC the Carpetani inhabited the Toledo and Alcaraz highland ranges along the middle Tagus basin, occupying a territory that stretched from the Guadarrama river at the north to the upper Anas (Guadiana) in the modern provinces of Guadalajara, Toledo, Madrid and Ciudad Real, an area designated as Carpetania in the ancient sources.

Julian of Toledo

JulianJulianus ToletanusSaint Julian
The Twelfth Council, led by newly installed bishop Julian confirmed the validity of Wamba's removal from office and his succession by Ervig.
Julian of Toledo (642 – 690) was born to parents of Jewish descent in Toledo, Hispania, but was raised Christian.

Province of Toledo

ToledoToledo province(TO)
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Its capital is the city of Toledo.

Third Council of Toledo

third" synod of 589Council of ToledoToledo III synod
Liuvigild's successor, Reccared, hosted the third council of Toledo, at which the Visigothic kings abandoned Arianism and reconciled with the existing Hispano-Roman episcopate.
Prior to the Council in Toledo, King Reccared had convened informal assemblies of bishops to resolve the religious schism in his kingdom.

Liuvigild

LeovigildKing LeovigildSiege of Seville (583)
This changed with Liuvigild (Leovigild), who brought the peninsula under his control.
Known for his Codex Revisus or Code of Leovigild, a unifying law allowing equal rights between the Visigothic and Hispano-Roman population, his kingdom covered modern Portugal and most of modern Spain down to Toledo.

Oppas

OppaOrpas
It is possible that a king called Oppa ruled in Toledo between Ruderic's death and the fall of Toledo.
Oppas or Oppa (died after 712) was a member of the Visigothic elite in the city of Toledo on the eve of the Muslim conquest of Hispania.

Egica

ErgicaÉgica
In 687, Ervig took the penitent state before dying, and the kingship passed to Egica, who was anointed king in Toledo on November 24. In 688, the Fifteenth Council lifted the ban on taking property from the families of former kings, whereupon Egica was able to plunder Ervig's family properties.
On his deathbed on 14 November 687, Erwig confirmed Egica as his heir and sent him with the royal court to Toledo to be crowned.

Fourth Council of Toledo

FourthFourth CouncilCouncil of Toledo
King Sisebut forced Jews in the Visigothic kingdom to convert to Christianity; this act was criticized and efforts were made to reverse it at the Fourth Council of Toledo in 633.
It was held at the church of Saint Leocadia in Toledo.

Eighth Council of Toledo

8th
The ban on lifing these sentences of excommunication was lifted at the Eighth Council of Toledo in 653, at which, for the first time, decisions were signed by palace officials as well as bishops.
The Eighth Council of Toledo commenced on 16 December 653 in the church of the Holy Apostles in Toledo.

Al-Andalus

AndalusianIslamic SpainMuslim Spain
With most of the rest of the Iberian peninsula, Toledo was ruled from Cordoba by the governor of Al-Andalus, under the ultimate notional command of the Umayyad Caliph in Damascus.
In 1085, Alfonso VI captured Toledo, starting a gradual decline of Muslim power.

Twelfth Council of Toledo

twelfth" council in 681twelfth
The Twelfth Council of Toledo was held in 681 after Wamba's removal from office.
Thus was born the primacy of the Toledan diocese over all Spain.

Erwig

Ervig
The Twelfth Council, led by newly installed bishop Julian confirmed the validity of Wamba's removal from office and his succession by Ervig.
He appointed Erwig his successor and the latter was anointed in Toledo on 31 October 680.

Wittiza

Witizarefugee
When Wittiza died around 710, Ruderic became Visigothic king in Toledo, but the kingdom was split, as a rival king Achila ruled Tarraconensis and Narbonensis.
It was severe enough to force the two kings from their capital of Toledo and it might be that this was the period when Wittiza was sent by his father to rule in Tui in Gallaecia over the regnum Suevorum, an event recorded by the Chronicle of Alfonso III.

Roderic

RodrigoKing RodericKing Roderick
When Wittiza died around 710, Ruderic became Visigothic king in Toledo, but the kingdom was split, as a rival king Achila ruled Tarraconensis and Narbonensis.
After the coup, the division of the kingdom into two factions, with the southwest (the provinces of Lusitania and western Carthaginiensis around the capital Toledo) in Roderic's hands and the northeast (Tarraconensis and Narbonensis) in the hands of Achila is confirmed by archaeological and numismatic evidence.

Priscillianism

PriscillianistPriscillianistsheresy Priscillianist
A church council was held in Toledo in the year 400 to discuss the conflict with Priscillianism.
In 400 another synod was held in Toledo to deal with this problem; many, including bishops Symphonius and Dictinnius were there reconciled to the Church.

Wamba (king)

WambaKing Wamba
When Reccesuinth died in 672 at his villa in Gerticos, his successor Wamba was elected on the spot, then went to Toledo to be anointed king by the bishop of Toledo, according to the procedures laid out in prior church councils.
A period of peace followed and, in 674, Wamba rebuilt the Roman walls around Toledo.