Toll-like receptor

Toll-like receptorsTLRTolltoll-like receptors (TLRs)TLRsToll geneToll like receptorToll receptorToll-like receptor signalingTLR agonist
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.wikipedia
312 Related Articles

TLR9

toll-like receptor 9TLR 9CD289
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.
It is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family.

IRAK4

These recruited proteins are then responsible for the subsequent activation of other downstream proteins, including protein kinases (IKKi, IRAK1, IRAK4, and TBK1) that further amplify the signal and ultimately lead to the upregulation or suppression of genes that orchestrate inflammatory responses and other transcriptional events.
IRAK-4 (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4), in the IRAK family, is a protein kinase involved in signaling innate immune responses from Toll-like receptors.

Immune receptor

receptorreceptorsImmune system receptors
The ability of the immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence of immune receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on the membranes of leukocytes including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, cells of the adaptive immunity T cells, and B cells, and non immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts).
The main receptors in the immune system are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated and killer inhibitor receptors (KARs and KIRs), complement receptors, Fc receptors, B cell receptors and T cell receptors.

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

Christiane Nusslein-VolhardChristiane VolhardC. Nüsslein-Volhard
TLR's received their name from their similarity to the protein coded by the toll gene identified in Drosophila in 1985 by Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric Wieschaus.
Nüsslein-Volhard is associated with the discovery of Toll, which led to the identification of toll-like receptors.

Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PAMPspathogen-associated molecular patternsPAMP
TLRs are a type of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
They are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in both plants and animals.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
The TLRs thus appear to be one of the most ancient, conserved components of the immune system.
Recognition of extracellular or endosomal pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is mediated by transmembrane proteins known as toll-like receptors (TLRs).

Pattern recognition receptor

pattern recognition receptorspattern recognition receptors (PRRs)(PRRs)
TLRs are a type of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
Recognition of extracellular or endosomal pathogen-associated molecular patterns is mediated by transmembrane proteins known as toll-like receptors (TLRs).

MYD88

Toll-induced signalling complex (TICS) is formed, comprising MyD88, Tube and Pelle (the orthologue of mammalian IRAK).
In that species it is a universal adapter protein as it is used by almost all TLRs (except TLR 3) to activate the transcription factor NF-κB.

Drosomycin

Signal from TICS is then transduced to Cactus (homologue of mammalian IκB), phosphorylated Cactus is polyubiquitylated and degraded, allowing nuclear translocation of DIF (dorsal-related immunity facor; a homologue of mammalian NF-κB) and induction of transcription of genes for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as Drosomycin.
Drosomycin is induced by infection by the Toll signalling pathway, while expression in surface epithelia like the respiratory tract is instead controlled by the immune deficiency pathway (Imd).

Drosophila melanogaster

fruit fliesDrosophilafruit fly
TLR's received their name from their similarity to the protein coded by the toll gene identified in Drosophila in 1985 by Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric Wieschaus.
The former is a systemic response mediated through the Toll and imd pathways, which are parallel systems for detecting microbes.

Interferon

interferonsIFNIFN-γ
Immune cells that have detected a virus may also release anti-viral factors such as interferons.
Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes—viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), bacterial flagella, CpG motifs—by pattern recognition receptors, such as membrane bound Toll like receptors or the cytoplasmic receptors RIG-I or MDA5, can trigger release of IFNs.

TLR2

toll-like receptor 2TLR 2TLR-2
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.
TLR2 is one of the toll-like receptors and plays a role in the immune system.

Innate immune system

innate immunityinnateinnate immune response
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
Viral components are recognized by different receptors: Toll-like receptors are located in the endosomal membrane and recognize double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), MDA5 and RIG-I receptors are located in the cytoplasm and recognize long dsRNA and phosphate-containing dsRNA respectively.

TLR 1

TLR1CD281TLR-1
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.
TLR 1 is a member of the toll-like receptor family (TLR) of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system.

NF-κB

NF-kBNF-kappaBNFκB
Signal from TICS is then transduced to Cactus (homologue of mammalian IκB), phosphorylated Cactus is polyubiquitylated and degraded, allowing nuclear translocation of DIF (dorsal-related immunity facor; a homologue of mammalian NF-κB) and induction of transcription of genes for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as Drosomycin.
In those insect species, activation of NF-κB is triggered by the Toll pathway (which evolved independently in insects and mammals) and by the Imd (immune deficiency) pathway.

Receptor (biochemistry)

receptorreceptorscellular receptors
They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed on sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes.
The main receptors in the immune system are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated and killer inhibitor receptors (KARs and KIRs), complement receptors, Fc receptors, B cell receptors and T cell receptors.

TLR3

TLR 3CD283toll like receptor-3
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.
TLR3 is a member of the toll-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system.

TLR5

Toll-like Receptor 5TLR 5
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.
It is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family.

Toll-like receptor 11

TLR11TLR 11
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.
TLR11 belongs to the toll-like receptor (TLR) family and the interleukin-1 receptor/toll-like receptor superfamily.

Dendritic cell

dendritic cellsmyeloid dendritic cellsdendritic
The ability of the immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence of immune receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on the membranes of leukocytes including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, cells of the adaptive immunity T cells, and B cells, and non immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts). They are single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors usually expressed on sentinel cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, that recognize structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes.
This is done through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs).

TLR7

toll-like receptor 7TLR 7Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.
It is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family and detects single stranded RNA.

TLR4

Toll-like receptor 4TLR 4TLR-4
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.
TLR4 is a transmembrane protein, member of the toll-like receptor family, which belongs to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family.

Heat shock protein

heat shock proteinsheat-shock proteinsheat-shock protein
TLRs have been suspected of binding to host molecules including fibrinogen (involved in blood clotting), heat shock proteins (HSPs), HMGB1, extracellular matrix components and self DNA (it is normally degraded by nucleases, but under inflammatory and autoimmune conditions it can form a complex with endogenous proteins, become resistant to these nucleases and gain access to endosomal TLRs as TLR7 or TLR9).
But gp96 immune function could be peptide-independent, because it is involved in proper folding of many immune receptors, like TLR or integrins.

TLR8

8CD288TLR 8
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.
It is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family.

TRIF

Its ligand is retroviral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which activates the TRIF dependent signalling pathway.
TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) is an adapter in responding to activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs).