Toll-like receptor 11

TLR11TLR 11
Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a protein that in mice and rats is encoded by the gene TLR11, whereas in humans it is represented by a pseudogene.wikipedia
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Toll-like receptor

Toll-like receptorsTLRToll
TLR11 belongs to the toll-like receptor (TLR) family and the interleukin-1 receptor/toll-like receptor superfamily.
The TLRs include TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR10, TLR11, TLR12, and TLR13, though the last three are not found in humans.

Pattern recognition receptor

pattern recognition receptorspattern recognition receptors (PRRs)(PRRs)
Proteins in the TLR family are pattern recognition receptors whose task is to alert the immune system of foreign invaders.
Studies have been conducted on TLR11 as well, and it has been shown that it recognizes flagellin and profilin-like proteins in mice.

Pseudogene

pseudogenespseudogenizationpseudo genes
Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a protein that in mice and rats is encoded by the gene TLR11, whereas in humans it is represented by a pseudogene.

Flagellin

Bacterial flagellindue to flagellin mutationsFLS2
In mice, TLR11 has been shown to recognise flagellin and/or profilin present on certain microbes, it helps propagate a host immune response.

Profilin

profilins
In mice, TLR11 has been shown to recognise flagellin and/or profilin present on certain microbes, it helps propagate a host immune response.

Innate immune system

innate immunityinnateinnate immune response
TLR11 plays a fundamental role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses, through the activation of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) response, and Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion.

Adaptive immune system

adaptive immunityadaptive immune responseadaptive
TLR11 plays a fundamental role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses, through the activation of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) response, and Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion.

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

TNF-αTNF-alphaTNFα
TLR11 plays a fundamental role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses, through the activation of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) response, and Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion.

Interleukin 12

IL-12interleukin-12IL12
TLR11 plays a fundamental role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses, through the activation of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) response, and Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion.

Interferon gamma

IFN-γinterferon-gammaIFNγ
TLR11 plays a fundamental role in both the innate and adaptive immune responses, through the activation of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the Interleukin 12 (IL-12) response, and Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion.

Toxoplasma gondii

ToxoplasmaToxoplasma gondiT. gondii
TLR11 mounts an immune response to multiple microbes, including Toxoplasma gondii (''T.

Salmonella

Salmonella poisoningSalmonella typhibacteremic salmonellosis
gondii), Salmonella species, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E.

Escherichia coli

E. coliE.coliE-coli
gondii), Salmonella species, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E.

Leucine-rich repeat

leucine-rich repeatsLRRleucine rich repeat
Every TLR has three domains that compose its overall structure: a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region, a transmembrane domain, and a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain.

NF-κB

NF-kBNF-kappaBNFκB
The ultimate end of the Toll pathway is the expression of genes by the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 that initiate an immune response to the pathogen.

AP-1 transcription factor

AP-1AP1activator protein 1
The ultimate end of the Toll pathway is the expression of genes by the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 that initiate an immune response to the pathogen.

Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
TLR11 is expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells, and liver, kidney, and bladder epithelial cells.

Dendritic cell

dendritic cellsmyeloid dendritic cellsdendritic
TLR11 is expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells, and liver, kidney, and bladder epithelial cells.

Stop codon

termination codonstop codonsamber stop codon
Human TLR11 contains stop codons, meaning functional TLR11 protein is not found in humans.

Chemokine

chemokinesCC chemokineCC chemokines
The transcription factor NF-kappa B at the end of the pathway transcribes pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-12) and chemokines.

Co-stimulation

co-stimulatorycostimulatorycostimulation
Activation of the Toll pathway also results in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on dendritic cells, which then go on to activate naïve CD4 cells in the lymph nodes.

T helper cell

Th1Th2T helper cells
Activation of the Toll pathway also results in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on dendritic cells, which then go on to activate naïve CD4 cells in the lymph nodes.

Apicomplexa

ApicomplexiaapicomplexanSporozoa
T. gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause infection in humans.

Toxoplasmosis

Congenital toxoplasmosistoxoplasmosis, cerebraltoxoplasmosis, congenital
Ingesting these could lead to Toxoplasmosis, a disease which at its worst can cause encephalitis or miscarriage as the disease is passed from mother to fetus.