Tonewheel

tone wheeltonewheelstonewheel electronic organ
A tonewheel or tone wheel is a simple electromechanical apparatus for generating electric musical notes in electromechanical organ instruments such as the Hammond Organ.wikipedia
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Electric organ

organelectronic organorganist
A tonewheel or tone wheel is a simple electromechanical apparatus for generating electric musical notes in electromechanical organ instruments such as the Hammond Organ.
In place of reeds and pipes, Robb and Hammond introduced a set of rapidly spinning magnetic wheels, called tonewheels, which excite transducers that generate electrical signals of various frequencies that are mixed and fed through an amplifier to a loudspeaker.

Rudolf Goldschmidt

Rudolph Goldschmidt
by Rudolph Goldschmidt and was first used in pre vacuum tube radio receivers as a beat frequency oscillator (BFO) to make continuous wave radiotelegraphy (Morse code) signals audible.
He also invented a mechanical device, the Goldschmidt tone wheel, used in early radio receivers to receive the new continuous wave radiotelegraph signals.

Hammond organ

Hammond B-3 organorganHammond B3
A tonewheel or tone wheel is a simple electromechanical apparatus for generating electric musical notes in electromechanical organ instruments such as the Hammond Organ.
Until 1975, Hammond organs generated sound by creating an electric current from rotating a metal tonewheel near an electromagnetic pickup, and then strengthening the signal with an amplifier so it can drive a speaker cabinet.

Magnet

permanent magnetmagnetspermanent magnets
Each disk has a given number of smooth bumps at the rim; these generate a specific frequency as the disk rotates close to a pickup assembly that consists of a magnet and electromagnetic coil.

Savart wheel

Savart's wheel
The same principle is used in modern-day electromechanical organs, such as the Hammond organ, that make use of tonewheels.

Alexanderson alternator

Alexanderson Radio Alternatoralternator transmitterhigh frequency alternator

Musical note

notenotesmusical notes
A tonewheel or tone wheel is a simple electromechanical apparatus for generating electric musical notes in electromechanical organ instruments such as the Hammond Organ.

Vacuum tube

vacuum tubestubethermionic valve
by Rudolph Goldschmidt and was first used in pre vacuum tube radio receivers as a beat frequency oscillator (BFO) to make continuous wave radiotelegraphy (Morse code) signals audible.

Radio receiver

receiverreceiversRadios
by Rudolph Goldschmidt and was first used in pre vacuum tube radio receivers as a beat frequency oscillator (BFO) to make continuous wave radiotelegraphy (Morse code) signals audible.

Beat frequency oscillator

BFObeat-frequency oscillator
by Rudolph Goldschmidt and was first used in pre vacuum tube radio receivers as a beat frequency oscillator (BFO) to make continuous wave radiotelegraphy (Morse code) signals audible.

Continuous wave

CWcontinuous-wavecontinuous-wave operation
by Rudolph Goldschmidt and was first used in pre vacuum tube radio receivers as a beat frequency oscillator (BFO) to make continuous wave radiotelegraphy (Morse code) signals audible.

Wireless telegraphy

wireless telegraphradiotelegraphywireless
by Rudolph Goldschmidt and was first used in pre vacuum tube radio receivers as a beat frequency oscillator (BFO) to make continuous wave radiotelegraphy (Morse code) signals audible.

Morse code

MorseInternational Morse CodeMorse-code
by Rudolph Goldschmidt and was first used in pre vacuum tube radio receivers as a beat frequency oscillator (BFO) to make continuous wave radiotelegraphy (Morse code) signals audible.

Electric motor

motorelectric motorsmotors
The tonewheel assembly consists of a synchronous AC motor and an associated gearbox that drives a series of rotating disks.

Transmission (mechanics)

transmissiongearboxtransmissions
The tonewheel assembly consists of a synchronous AC motor and an associated gearbox that drives a series of rotating disks.

Pickup (music technology)

pickuppickupsguitar pickup
Each disk has a given number of smooth bumps at the rim; these generate a specific frequency as the disk rotates close to a pickup assembly that consists of a magnet and electromagnetic coil.

Electromagnetic coil

coilwindingcoils
Each disk has a given number of smooth bumps at the rim; these generate a specific frequency as the disk rotates close to a pickup assembly that consists of a magnet and electromagnetic coil.

Electromagnetic induction

inductionmagnetic inductioninduced
As each bump in the wheel approaches the pickup, it temporarily concentrates the magnetic field near it, and thus strengthens the magnetic field that passes through the coil, inducing a current in the coil by the process of electromagnetic induction.

Fundamental frequency

fundamentalfundamental tonefundamental frequencies
A single fundamental frequency can thus be combined with one or more harmonics to produce complex sounds.

Harmonic

harmonicsflageoletharmonic frequencies
A single fundamental frequency can thus be combined with one or more harmonics to produce complex sounds.

Chromatic scale

chromaticchromaticallychromaticism
This causes the organ to add chromatics to played notes.

Vox Continental

Vox organVox Continental organorgan
It was also intended to replace heavy tonewheel organs, such as the revered Hammond B3.

Clonewheel organ

emulationselectronic Hammond-style organsHammond organ-emulators
The phrase "clonewheel" is a play on words in reference to how the original Hammond produces sound through "tonewheels".

Robb Wave Organ

It uses a unique type of tone wheel synthesis to reproduce pipe organ tones and is one of the first electronic organs ever made.

List of Hammond organs

SolovoxT-102 organHammond T-102 organ
Various models were produced, which originally used tonewheels to generate sound via additive synthesis, where component waveform ratios are mixed by sliding switches called drawbars and imitate the pipe organ's registers.