Tonga

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Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.wikipedia
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List of islands and towns in Tonga

List of cities in Tonga169 islandsCities of Tonga
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.
The following list gives all islands and cities (villages and hamlets) in Tonga in alphabetical order with many local areas and (poetical) nicknames as well.

Tongan language

TonganTongaton
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.
Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga.

Tongatapu

TofoaTongatabuFolaha
The state has a population of 100,651 people, of whom 70% reside on the main island of Tongatapu. Later came other Dutch explorers, including Jacob Le Maire (who called on the northern island of Niuatoputapu); and in 1643 Abel Tasman (who visited Tongatapu and Haʻapai).
Tongatapu is the main island of the Kingdom of Tonga and the location of its capital Nukualofa.

Fiji

Fiji IslandsRepublic of FijiFijian
It is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna (France) to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east (which is the nearest foreign territory), Kermadec (part of New Zealand) to the southwest, and New Caledonia (France) and Vanuatu to the farther west.
Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north.

Niue

Niue IslandNiue-FekaiNiueans
It is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna (France) to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east (which is the nearest foreign territory), Kermadec (part of New Zealand) to the southwest, and New Caledonia (France) and Vanuatu to the farther west. By the 12th century, Tongans and the Tongan paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga, had a reputation across the central Pacific—from Niue, Samoa, Rotuma, Wallis & Futuna, New Caledonia to Tikopia—leading some historians to speak of a Tuʻi Tonga Empire.
Niue is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2400 km northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands.

New Zealand

NZLNZKiwi
It is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna (France) to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east (which is the nearest foreign territory), Kermadec (part of New Zealand) to the southwest, and New Caledonia (France) and Vanuatu to the farther west.
New Zealand is about 2000 km east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1000 km south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga.

Kermadec Islands

KermadecKermadecsKermadec Island
It is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna (France) to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east (which is the nearest foreign territory), Kermadec (part of New Zealand) to the southwest, and New Caledonia (France) and Vanuatu to the farther west.
The Kermadec Islands (Rangitāhua ) are a subtropical island arc in the South Pacific Ocean 800 - 1000 km northeast of New Zealand's North Island, and a similar distance southwest of Tonga.

Polynesia

South SeasSouth Sea IslandsPolynesian Islands
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.
The volcanism associated with this subduction zone is the origin of the Kermadec and Tongan island archipelagos.

William Mariner (writer)

William MarinerWill Mariner William Mariner
According to the writer William Mariner, the chiefs wanted to kill Cook during the gathering but could not agree on a plan.
William Charles Mariner (10 September 1791 – 20 October 1853) was an Englishman who lived in Tonga from 29November 1806 to (probably) 8November 1810.

Tuʻi Tonga Empire

Tu'i Tonga EmpireTui Tonga EmpireTongan Empire
By the 12th century, Tongans and the Tongan paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga, had a reputation across the central Pacific—from Niue, Samoa, Rotuma, Wallis & Futuna, New Caledonia to Tikopia—leading some historians to speak of a Tuʻi Tonga Empire.
The Tui Tonga Empire, or Tongan Empire, are descriptions sometimes given to Tongan expansionism and projected hegemony in Oceania which began around 950 CE, reaching its peak during the period 1200–1500.

Samoa

Western SamoaIndependent State of SamoaSamoan
It is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna (France) to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east (which is the nearest foreign territory), Kermadec (part of New Zealand) to the southwest, and New Caledonia (France) and Vanuatu to the farther west. By the 12th century, Tongans and the Tongan paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga, had a reputation across the central Pacific—from Niue, Samoa, Rotuma, Wallis & Futuna, New Caledonia to Tikopia—leading some historians to speak of a Tuʻi Tonga Empire.
The United Kingdom had vacated all claims in Samoa and in return received (1) termination of German rights in Tonga, (2) all of the Solomon Islands south of Bougainville, and (3) territorial alignments in West Africa.

Wallis and Futuna

Wallis and Futuna IslandsWallis IslandsWallis-et-Futuna
It is surrounded by Fiji and Wallis and Futuna (France) to the northwest, Samoa to the northeast, Niue to the east (which is the nearest foreign territory), Kermadec (part of New Zealand) to the southwest, and New Caledonia (France) and Vanuatu to the farther west. By the 12th century, Tongans and the Tongan paramount chief, the Tuʻi Tonga, had a reputation across the central Pacific—from Niue, Samoa, Rotuma, Wallis & Futuna, New Caledonia to Tikopia—leading some historians to speak of a Tuʻi Tonga Empire.
Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (Wallis-et-Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis-et-Futuna, Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: Uvea mo Futuna), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, and Tokelau to the northeast.

Niuatoputapu

Keppel's IslandKeppelNiua
Later came other Dutch explorers, including Jacob Le Maire (who called on the northern island of Niuatoputapu); and in 1643 Abel Tasman (who visited Tongatapu and Haʻapai).
Niuatoputapu is a high island in the island nation of Tonga, Pacific Ocean.

George Tupou I

TāufaʻāhauKing George Tupou IGeorge Tupou I of Tonga
In 1845, the ambitious young warrior, strategist, and orator Tāufaʻāhau united Tonga into a kingdom.
George Tupou I, King of Tonga (4 December 1797 – 18 February 1893) was originally known as Tāufaʻāhau I, or Tupou Maeakafa Ngininginiofolanga in modern spelling (originally Tubou Maeakafa Giniginiofolaga).

Tuʻi Kanokupolu

Tu'i KanokupoluTui KanokupoluTu’i Kanokupolu
He held the chiefly title of Tuʻi Kanokupolu, but had been baptised by Methodist missionaries with the name Siaosi ("George") in 1831.
Tuʻi Kanokupolu (chiefs) are a junior rank of the Haʻa Tuʻi (king's lineage) in Tonga.

Alejandro Malaspina

Alessandro MalaspinaAlejandro Malaspina MelilupiAlexandro Malaspina
Later noteworthy European visitors included James Cook (Royal Navy) in 1773, 1774, and 1777; Spanish Navy explorers Francisco Mourelle de la Rúa in 1781 and Alessandro Malaspina in 1793; the first London missionaries in 1797; and the Wesleyan Methodist Reverend Walter Lawry in 1822.
Under a Spanish royal commission, he undertook a voyage around the world from 1786 to 1788, then, from 1789 to 1794, a scientific expedition (the Malaspina Expedition) throughout the Pacific Ocean, exploring and mapping much of the west coast of the Americas from Cape Horn to the Gulf of Alaska, crossing to Guam and the Philippines, and stopping in New Zealand, Australia, and Tonga.

Shirley Waldemar Baker

Shirley Baker
In 1875, with the help of missionary Shirley Waldemar Baker, he declared Tonga a constitutional monarchy; formally adopted the western royal style; emancipated the "serfs"; enshrined a code of law, land tenure, and freedom of the press; and limited the power of the chiefs.
Shirley Waldemar Baker (1836 – 16 November 1903) was a Methodist missionary in Tonga.

Tupou VI

King Tupou VILavaka Ata ʻUlukālalaPrince 'Ulukalala Lavaka Ata
King Tupou VI (a descendant of the first monarch), his family, powerful nobles and a growing non-royal elite caste live in much wealth, with the rest of the country living in relative poverty.
ʻAhoʻeitu Tupou VI (Tongan: ‘Aho‘eitu ʻUnuakiʻotonga Tukuʻaho; born 12 July 1959) is the King of Tonga.

Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV

Taufa'ahau Tupou IVTāufaāhau Tupou IVTaufaʻahau Tupou IV
Following the precedents of Queen Sālote and the counsel of numerous international advisors, the government of Tonga under King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV (reigned 1965–2006) monetised the economy, internationalised the medical and education system, and enabled access by commoners to increasing forms of material wealth (houses, cars, and other commodities), education, and overseas travel.
Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV (4 July 1918 – 10 September 2006), son of Queen Sālote Tupou III and her consort Prince Viliami Tungī Mailefihi, was the king of Tonga from the death of his mother in 1965 until his own death in 2006.

Royal Tongan Airlines

Friendly Island Airways
Schemes also included the registering of foreign ships (which proved to be engaged in illegal activities, including shipments for al-Qaeda); claiming geo-orbital satellite slots (the revenue from which seems to belong to the Princess Royal, not the state); holding a long-term charter on an unusable Boeing 757 that was sidelined in Auckland Airport, leading to the collapse of Royal Tongan Airlines; and approving a factory for exporting cigarettes to China (against the advice of Tongan medical officials, and decades of health promotion messaging).
Royal Tongan Airlines was the national airline of Tonga until liquidation in 2004.

Sālote Tupou III

Salote Tupou IIIQueen SaloteSālote
The Treaty of Friendship and Tonga's protection status ended in 1970 under arrangements established by Queen Salote Tupou III prior to her death in 1965.
Sālote Tupou III (born Sālote Mafile‘o Pilolevu; 13 March 1900 – 16 December 1965) was the first Queen regnant and third Monarch of the Kingdom of Tonga from 1918 to her death in 1965.

LGBT rights in Tonga

Tongahomosexuality
Male homosexuality is illegal in Tonga, with a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment.
Homosexuality is illegal in Tonga, with a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment, but the law is not enforced.

George Tupou V

Prince Tupouto'a TungiKing George Tupou VTupoutoa
The then Crown Prince Tupoutoʻa and Pilolevu, the Princess Royal, remained generally silent on the issue.
George Tupou V (Tongan: Siaosi Tupou, full name: Siaosi Tāufaʻāhau Manumataongo Tukuʻaho Tupou; 4 May 1948 – 18 March 2012) was the King of Tonga from the death of his father Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV in 2006 until his own death six years later.

Feleti Sevele

Feleti Vaka'uta SeveleFeleti Vakaʻuta SeveleFred Sevele
The elected Minister of Labour, Dr Feleti Sevele, replaced him in the interim.
Feleti Vakaʻuta Sevele, Lord Sevele of Vailahi (born 7 July 1944) was the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Tonga from 30 March 2006 to 22 December 2010.

Constitution of Tonga

constitutionConstitution of 1875Tongan Constitution
The Constitution of Tonga protects land ownership: land cannot be sold to foreigners (although it may be leased ).
The Constitution of Tonga is supreme law under which the Government of Tonga operates.