A report on Tongmenghui

Credential of Tongmenghui.
Marker of the Reception Centre of the Tongmenghui along the Dr Sun Yat-sen Historical Trail in Hong Kong

Secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905, with the goal of overthrowing China's Qing Dynasty.

- Tongmenghui

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Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen

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Chinese statesman, physician, and political philosopher, who served as the first provisional president of the Republic of China and the first leader of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China).

Chinese statesman, physician, and political philosopher, who served as the first provisional president of the Republic of China and the first leader of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China).

Sun Yat-sen
Photograph of Sun Yat-sen, c. 1911
Silver coin: 1 yuan - Sun Yat Sen, 1927
Sun Yat-sen (back row, fourth from right) and his family
Sun (second from left) and his friends the Four Bandits: Yeung Hok-ling (left), Chan Siu-bak (middle), Yau Lit (right), and Guan Jingliang (關景良, standing) at the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, circa 1888
Plaque in London marking the site of a house at 4 Warwick Court, WC1 where Sun Yat-sen lived while in exile
Letter from Sun Yat-sen to James Cantlie announcing to him that he has assumed the Presidency of the Provisional Republican Government of China, dated 21 January 1912
A letter with Sun's seal commencing the Tongmenghui in Hong Kong
Interior of the Wan Qing Yuan featuring Sun's items and photos
The Sun Yat-sen Museum in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, where he planned the Xinhai Revolution.
The Revolutionary Army of the Wuchang uprising fighting in the Battle of Yangxia
"Portrait of Sun Yat-sen" (1921) Li Tiefu Oil on Canvas 93×71.7cm
(L-R): Liao Zhongkai, Chiang Kai-shek, Sun Yat-sen and Soong Ching-ling at the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924
Sun Yat-sen (seated) and Chiang Kai-shek
Sun (seated, right) and his wife Soong Ching-ling (seated next to him) in Kobe, Japan in 1924
Chinese generals at the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in 1928 after the Northern Expedition. From right: Cheng Jin (何成浚), Zhang Zuobao (張作寶), Chen Diaoyuan (陳調元), Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida (馬四達), and Bai Chongxi.
Statue in the Mausoleum, Kuomintang flag on the ceiling
Lu Muzhen (1867–1952), Sun's first wife from 1885 to 1915
Kaoru Otsuki, Sun's Japanese wife
Fumiko, the daughter of Sun and Kaoru
Aerial perspective of Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall in central Singapore. Taken in 2016
Sun Yat-Sen monument in Chinatown area of Los Angeles, California
Sun Yat-Sen plaza in the Chinese Quarter of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Sun Yat-sen tribute in Tiananmen Square, 2010
Mausoleum of Sun Yat-sen, Nanjing.
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Guangzhou.
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Taipei
Sun Yat-sen Memorial Centre, George Town, Penang, Malaysia
A marker on the Sun Yat-sen Historical Trail on Hong Kong Island

On 20 August 1905, Sun joined forces with revolutionary Chinese students studying in Tokyo to form the unified group Tongmenghui (United League), which sponsored uprisings in China.

Nanjing Road (Nanking Road) in Shanghai after the Shanghai Uprising, hung with the Five Races Under One Union flags then used by the revolutionaries in Shanghai and Northern China.

1911 Revolution

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The 1911 Revolution, or Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

The 1911 Revolution, or Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

Nanjing Road (Nanking Road) in Shanghai after the Shanghai Uprising, hung with the Five Races Under One Union flags then used by the revolutionaries in Shanghai and Northern China.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen in London
Sun Yat-sen with members of the Tongmenghui
Prince Qing with some royal cabinet members
Flag of the First Guangzhou Uprising
A statue to honor revolutionary Qiu Jin
The memorial for the 72 martyrs
The Iron Blood 18-star flag, used during the Wuchang Uprising
Paths of the uprising
Map of uprisings during the 1911 Revolution
Chen Qimei, military governor of Shanghai
One of the old buildings occupied by the Guangfuhui in Lianjiang County, Fujian
1911 battle at Ta-ping gate, Nanking. Painting by T. Miyano.
Seal of the President of Provisional Government of Republic of China
Tang Shaoyi, left. Edward Selby Little, middle. Wu Tingfang, right.
Sun Yat-sen in 1912 at one of the historic crossroads with the Five Races Under One Union flag and the Iron Blood 18-star flag
Imperial edict for abdication

On 1 January 1912, the National Assembly declared the establishment of the Republic of China, with Sun Yat-sen, leader of the Tongmenghui (United League), as President of the Republic.

Kuomintang

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Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Major political party in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Revolutionary Army attacking Nanjing in 1911
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang after Sun's death in 1925
KMT flag displayed in Lhasa, Tibet in 1938
The National Revolutionary Army soldiers marched into the British concessions in Hankou during the Northern Expedition
The KMT in Tihwa, Sinkiang in 1942
Nationalist soldiers during the Second Sino-Japanese War
The retrocession of Taiwan in Taipei on 25 October 1945
The former KMT headquarters in Taipei City (1949–2006), whose imposing structure, directly facing the Presidential Office Building, was seen as a symbol of the party's wealth and dominance
Pan-blue supporters at a rally during the 2004 presidential election
Kuomintang public service center in Shilin, Taipei
Lien Chan (middle) and Wu Po-hsiung (second left) and the KMT touring the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing, People's Republic of China when the Pan-Blue coalition visited the mainland in 2005
KMT headquarters in Taipei City before the KMT Central Committee moved in June 2006 to a much more modest Bade building, having sold the original headquarters to private investors of the EVA Airways Corporation
KMT Kinmen headquarters office in Jincheng Township, Kinmen County
KMT Building in Vancouver's Chinatown, British Columbia, Canada
KMT branch office in Pingzhen District, Taoyuan City
The KMT maintains offices in some of the Chinatowns of the world and its United States party headquarters are located in San Francisco Chinatown, on Stockton Street directly across the Chinese Six Companies
KMT Eastern U.S. headquarters is in New York Chinatown
KMT office of Australasia in Sydney, Australia
From left to right, KMT members pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition: Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, General Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida and General Bai Chongxi
Malaysian Chinese Association
Vietnamese Kuomintang
People's Action Party of Vietnam
Taipei Grand Mosque
The KMT reveres its founder, Sun Yat-sen, as the "Father of the Nation"
Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang in 1924

In 1905, Sun joined forces with other anti-monarchist societies in Tokyo, Empire of Japan, to form the Tongmenghui, a group committed to the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and the establishment of a republic, on 20 August 1905.

Huang Xing

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Chinese revolutionary leader and politician, and the first commander-in-chief of the Republic of China.

Chinese revolutionary leader and politician, and the first commander-in-chief of the Republic of China.

In Japan, Huang met Sun Yat-sen and helped Sun found the Tongmenghui, another revolutionary party dedicated to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty.

Song Jiaoren

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Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang (KMT).

Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang (KMT).

In 1905, together with Sun Yat-sen, Song helped to found and was a leading activist in the Tongmenghui, which was an organization dedicated to the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and the formation of a republic.

Wang Jingwei

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Chinese politician.

Chinese politician.

Wang Jingwei in his twenties.
Former residence of Wang Jingwei in Nanjing.
Wang Jingwei and Chiang Kai-Shek in 1926
Wang Jingwei (second from left) and Chen Bijun (far left) in British Malaya, 1935.
Wang Jingwei on a 1935 cover of Time magazine
Wang receiving German diplomats while head of state in 1941
Hideki Tojo and Wang Jingwei meet in 1942

Born in Sanshui, Guangdong, but of Zhejiang origin, Wang went to Japan as an international student sponsored by the Qing Dynasty government in 1903, and joined the Tongmenghui in 1905.

Cai Yuanpei

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Chinese philosopher and politician who was an influential figure in the history of Chinese modern education.

Chinese philosopher and politician who was an influential figure in the history of Chinese modern education.

Cai's former residence in Shaoxing, Zhejiang.
Cai Yuanpei with Students from Peking University studying abroad
The statue of Cai Yuanpei in the campus of Peking University

He established Guangfuhui in 1904 and joined Tongmenghui in Paris the next year, and became a member of the Chinese anarchist group led by Wu Zhihui, and Li Shizeng.

Li Zongren in 1943

Li Zongren

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Prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.

Prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.

Li Zongren in 1943
Former residence of Li Zongren in Nanjing.
Li Zongren posing after the successful defense of Tai'erzhuang.
Li Zongren and Chiang Kai-shek.
Former residence of Li Zongren in Guilin.
Li Zongren and Mao Zedong on 1st of October, 1966 during the national day celebration

He joined the Tongmenghui, the revolutionary party of Sun Yat-sen, in 1910 but had little understanding at that time of Sun's wider goals of reform and national reunification.

Zhang Renjie

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Political figure and financial entrepreneur in the Republic of China.

Political figure and financial entrepreneur in the Republic of China.

Nanxun, the Zhang Family Ancestral Home
Wu Zhihui, Zhang, and Li Shizeng, Leaders of the Xin Shijie Society
Letter from Sun Yat-sen to Zhang (January 8, 1923
Zhang Family Residence in Nanxun

On his return to Paris, Zhang led Wu and Li to join Sun's Tongmenghui, the more politically radical of the anti-Manchu groups.

Hu Hanmin

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Chinese philosopher and politician who was one of the early conservative right factional leaders in the Kuomintang (KMT) during revolutionary China.

Chinese philosopher and politician who was one of the early conservative right factional leaders in the Kuomintang (KMT) during revolutionary China.

He studied in Japan starting in 1902, and joined the T'ung-meng Hui (Chinese Revolutionary Alliance) in 1905 as an editor of the newspaper Min Bao.