Tongmenghui

Revolutionary AllianceChinese Revolutionary AlliancerevolutionariesChinese United LeagueTong Meng HuiTongmeng Huialliancean underground movementChina Revolutionary AllianceChinese republican movement
The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated as Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society, 中國同盟會) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.wikipedia
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Sun Yat-sen

Sun YatsenDr. Sun Yat-senSun Zhongshan
The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated as Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society, 中國同盟會) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.
On 20 August 1905, Sun joined forces with revolutionary Chinese students studying in Tokyo, Japan to form the unified group Tongmenghui (United League), which sponsored uprisings in China.

Li Zongren

Li Tsung-jenDelinLee Tsung-jen
Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
He joined the Tongmenghui, the revolutionary party of Sun Yat-sen, in 1910 but had little understanding at that time of Sun's wider goals of reform and national reunification.

Guangfuhui

Guangfuhui (Restoration Society)Restoration SocietyGuangfu Hui
The Tongmenghui was created through the unification of Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society), the Guangfuhui (Restoration Society) and many other Chinese revolutionary groups.
The organization was merged into Tongmenghui one year later.

Wang Jingwei

Wang Ching-weiWang ZhaomingWang
Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
Born in Sanshui, Guangdong, but of Zhejiang origin, Wang went to Japan as an international student sponsored by the Qing Dynasty government in 1903, and joined the Tongmenghui in 1905.

Cai Yuanpei

Cai Yuan PeiT'sai Yuan-p'eiTsai Yuan-pei
Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
He established Guangfuhui in 1904 and joined Tongmenghui in Paris the next year, and became a member of the Chinese anarchist group led by Wu Zhihui, and Li Shizeng.

Song Jiaoren

Sung Chiao-jenAssassination of Song Jiaoren
The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated as Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society, 中國同盟會) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.
In 1905, together with Sun Yat-sen, Song helped found, and was a leading activist in, the Tongmenghui, which was an organization dedicated to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the formation of a republic.

Huang Xing

Huang HsingHuang Keqiang
Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
In Japan, Huang met Sun Yat-sen and helped Sun found the Tongmenghui, another revolutionary party dedicated to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty.

Hu Hanmin

Hu Han MinHu Han-min
Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
He studied in Japan starting in 1902, and joined the Tongmenghui (Chinese Revolutionary Alliance) in 1905 as an editor of the newspaper Min Bao.

Zhang Binglin

Zhang TaiyanMeishuZhang Tai Yan
Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
After his release, Zhang went to Japan to join Tongmeng Hui and became the chief editor of the newspaper Min Bao which strongly criticized the Qing Empire's corruption.

Xinhai Revolution

1911 RevolutionChinese RevolutionChinese Revolution of 1911
The newspaper ended in 1910, presumably due to the Xinhai Revolution in 1911.
The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui (United League).

Qiu Jin

Ch'iu Chin
Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
She became a member of the Triads and Tongmenghui secret society who at the time advocated the overthrow of the Qing and restoration of Han Chinese governance.

Zhang Renjie

Zhang JingjiangChang Ching-chiang
Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
On his return to Paris, Zhang led Wu and Li to join Sun's Tongmenghui, the more politically radical of the anti-Manchu groups.

1910 Penang conference

Penang conferenceconsiderable financial support
During this time, the 1910 Penang Conference was held to plan the Second Guangzhou Uprising.
The meeting focused on fund raising and the planning of a final revolution to overthrow the Qing government that would make or break the Tongmenghui.

Revive China Society

XingzhonghuiSociety for Regenerating ChinaXingzhonghui (Revive China Society)
The Tongmenghui was created through the unification of Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society), the Guangfuhui (Restoration Society) and many other Chinese revolutionary groups. The Three Principles of the People were created around the time of the merging of Revive China Society and the Tongmenghui.
It was later merged into the Tongmenghui, which in turn became the Kuomintang.

Chen Tianhua

Among the Tongmenghui's members were Huang Xing, Li Zongren, Zhang Binglin, Chen Tianhua, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin, Tao Chengzhang, Cai Yuanpei, Li Shizeng, Zhang Renjie, and Qiu Jin.
In 1905 Chen helped Sun Yat-sen found the Tongmenghui.

Second Guangzhou Uprising

Huanghuagang Uprising72 Martyrs of HuanghuagangRevolutionary Martyrs
During this time, the 1910 Penang Conference was held to plan the Second Guangzhou Uprising.
On November 13, 1910, Sun Yat-sen, along with several leading figures of the Tongmenghui, gathered at the Penang conference to draw up plans for a decisive battle.

Kwong Wah Yit Poh

Guang Hua DailyKwong Wah Jit Poh
The Tongmenghui also started a newspaper, the Kwong Wah Jit Poh, with the first issue published in December 1910 from 120 Armenian Street, Penang.
The Yangon branch of the Tongmenghui took up the idea and started the Yan Kon Kwang Hwa Pao.

Kuomintang

KMTNationalistnationalists
In August 1912, the Tongmenghui formed the nucleus of the Kuomintang, the governing political party of the republic.
The predecessor of the Kuomintang, the Revolutionary Alliance (Tongmenghui), was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and the subsequent revolt in 1911 and proclamation of the Republic of China.

History of the Republic of China

Republic of ChinaHistory of Republic of ChinaRepublican China
In 1905 Sun founded the Tongmenghui in Tokyo with Huang Xing, a popular leader of the Chinese revolutionary movement in Japan, as his deputy.

Socialist ideology of the Kuomintang

equal distribution of landChinaKuomintang ideology
The Tongmenghui revolutionary organization led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen was the first to promote socialist ideology in China.

Gelaohui

Gelaohui (Elder Brother society)
Although it was not associated with Sun Yat-sen's Tongmenghui, they both participated in the Xinhai Revolution.

Three Principles of the People

Three PrinciplesPrinciple of MinquanThree Principles of People
The Three Principles of the People were created around the time of the merging of Revive China Society and the Tongmenghui.
After the Tongmenghui was formed, Sun published an editorial in Min Bao .

Anti-Qing sentiment

anti-Qinganti-ManchuAnti-Manchu sentiment
This included people from many mainstream political movements and uprisings, such as Taiping Rebellion, the Xinhai Revolution, the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, the Revive China Society, the Tongmenghui, the Panthay Rebellion, White Lotus Rebellion, and others.

Huaxinghui

Huaxinghui (China Revival Society)Society for the Revival of the Chinese Nation
Many of its members later became key figures of the Tongmenghui.

Secret society

secret societiessecret organizationsecret
The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated as Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society, 中國同盟會) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.