Tongue

Glossusforamen cecumbladelingualbase of the tongueglossatipTuberculum lateraleapex of the tonguelateral lingual swelling
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.wikipedia
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Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

constrictor pharyngis superiorsuperior pharyngeal constrictorsuperior
The posterior part is, at its root, directed backward, and connected with the hyoid bone by the hyoglossi and genioglossi muscles and the hyoglossal membrane, with the epiglottis by three glossoepiglottic folds of mucous membrane, with the soft palate by the glossopalatine arches, and with the pharynx by the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the mucous membrane.
- and by a few fibers from the side of the tongue (Glossopharyngeal part)

Glossoepiglottic folds

glossoepiglottic fold
The posterior part is, at its root, directed backward, and connected with the hyoid bone by the hyoglossi and genioglossi muscles and the hyoglossal membrane, with the epiglottis by three glossoepiglottic folds of mucous membrane, with the soft palate by the glossopalatine arches, and with the pharynx by the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the mucous membrane.
The anterior or lingual surface of the epiglottis is curved forward, and covered on its upper, free part by mucous membrane which is reflected on to the sides and root of the tongue, forming a median and two lateral glossoepiglottic folds; the lateral folds are partly attached to the wall of the pharynx.

Lingual papillae

papillaecircumvallate papillaefiliform papillae
The tongue's upper surface (dorsum) is covered by taste buds housed in numerous lingual papillae. Embedded in this are numerous papillae that house the taste buds and their taste receptors.
Lingual papillae (singular papilla) are the small, nipple-like structures on the upper surface of the tongue that give it its characteristic rough texture.

Transverse muscle of tongue

Transverse muscletransversus
They are the superior longitudinal muscle, the inferior longitudinal muscle, the vertical muscle, and the transverse muscle.
The transverse muscle of tongue (transversus linguae) is an intrinsic muscle of the tongue.

Taste bud

taste budspapillaetaste pore
The tongue's upper surface (dorsum) is covered by taste buds housed in numerous lingual papillae. Embedded in this are numerous papillae that house the taste buds and their taste receptors.
The taste receptors are located around the small structures known as papillae found on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, upper esophagus, the cheek, and epiglottis.

Soft palate

velumpalatepalatine velum
The posterior part is, at its root, directed backward, and connected with the hyoid bone by the hyoglossi and genioglossi muscles and the hyoglossal membrane, with the epiglottis by three glossoepiglottic folds of mucous membrane, with the soft palate by the glossopalatine arches, and with the pharynx by the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the mucous membrane.
A speech sound made with the middle part of the tongue (dorsum) touching the soft palate is known as a velar consonant.

Mouth

oral cavityoralorally
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing. The tongue is a muscular hydrostat that forms part of the floor of the oral cavity.
In mammals the buccal cavity is typically roofed by the hard and soft palates, floored by the tongue and surrounded by the cheeks, salivary glands, upper and lower teeth.

Vertical muscle of tongue

Vertical muscleverticalis muscle
They are the superior longitudinal muscle, the inferior longitudinal muscle, the vertical muscle, and the transverse muscle.
The vertical muscle is an intrinsic muscle of the tongue.

Hyoid bone

hyoidgreater cornulesser cornu
The posterior part is, at its root, directed backward, and connected with the hyoid bone by the hyoglossi and genioglossi muscles and the hyoglossal membrane, with the epiglottis by three glossoepiglottic folds of mucous membrane, with the soft palate by the glossopalatine arches, and with the pharynx by the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the mucous membrane.
Blood is supplied to the hyoid bone via the lingual artery, which runs down from the tongue to the greater horns of the bone.

Palatoglossus muscle

palatoglossuspalatoglossal muscleglossopalatine muscle
They are the genioglossus, the hyoglossus (often including the chondroglossus) the styloglossus, and the palatoglossus.
Palatoglossus arises from the palatine aponeurosis of the soft palate, where it is continuous with the muscle of the opposite side, and passing downward, forward, and lateralward in front of the palatine tonsil, is inserted into the side of the tongue, some of its fibers spreading over the dorsum, and others passing deeply into the substance of the organ to intermingle with the transverse muscle of tongue.

French kiss

French kissingtongue kissFrench
The tongue is part of the erogenous zone of the mouth and can be used in intimate contact, as in the French kiss and in oral sex.
In English informal speech, a French kiss, also known as a deep kiss, is an amorous kiss in which the participants' tongues extend to touch each other's lips or tongue.

Geographic tongue

migratory stomatitis
The tongue is prone to several pathologies including glossitis and other inflammations such as geographic tongue, and median rhomboid glossitis; burning mouth syndrome, oral hairy leukoplakia, oral candidiasis (thrush), black hairy tongue and fissured tongue.
Geographic tongue, also known by several other terms, is an inflammatory condition of the mucous membrane of the tongue, usually on the dorsal surface.

Ankyloglossia

tongue tietongue-tiedtongue tied
A congenital disorder of the tongue is that of ankyloglossia also known as tongue-tie.
Ankyloglossia varies in degree of severity from mild cases characterized by mucous membrane bands to complete ankyloglossia whereby the tongue is tethered to the floor of the mouth.

Mucous membrane

mucosamucous membranesmucosal
The posterior part is, at its root, directed backward, and connected with the hyoid bone by the hyoglossi and genioglossi muscles and the hyoglossal membrane, with the epiglottis by three glossoepiglottic folds of mucous membrane, with the soft palate by the glossopalatine arches, and with the pharynx by the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the mucous membrane.

Muscular hydrostat

hydrostatmuscular
The tongue is a muscular hydrostat that forms part of the floor of the oral cavity.
These mechanisms are seen often in prey capture of shovelnose frogs and chameleons, as well as in the human tongue and many other examples.

Oral mucosa

buccal mucosaalveolar mucosamucosa
The upper surface of the tongue is covered in masticatory mucosa a type of oral mucosa which is of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.

Thyroid

thyroid glandthyroid folliclethyroid function
At the tip of the terminal sulcus is the foramen cecum, which is the point of attachment of the thyroglossal duct where the embryonic thyroid begins to descend.
Small accessory thyroid glands may in fact occur anywhere along the thyroglossal duct, from the foramen cecum of the tongue to the position of the thyroid in the adult.

Umami

savorysavouryumami taste
Distinct types of taste receptor cells respectively detect substances that are sweet, bitter, salty, sour, spicy, or taste of umami.
The sensation of umami is due to the detection of the carboxylate anion of glutamate in specialized receptor cells present on the human and other animal tongues.

Sublingual administration

sublingualunder the tonguesublingually
The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is an ideal location for the administration of certain medications into the body.
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.

Licking

lickExcessive lickinglap
In mammals such as dogs and cats, the tongue is often used to clean the fur and body by licking.
Licking is the action of passing the tongue over a surface, typically either to deposit saliva onto the surface, or to collect liquid, food or minerals onto the tongue for ingestion, or to communicate with other animals.

Tongue cleaner

tongue cleaningtongue scraping
This coating has been identified as a major factor contributing to bad breath (halitosis), which can be managed by using a tongue cleaner.
A tongue cleaner (also called a tongue scraper or tongue brush) is an oral hygiene device designed to clean the coating on the upper surface of the tongue.

Frog

frogsAnuraanuran
For example, chameleons, frogs, and anteaters have prehensile tongues.
An adult frog has a stout body, protruding eyes, anteriorly-attached tongue, limbs folded underneath, and no tail (except in tailed frogs).

Submandibular lymph nodes

Submandibular (Submaxillary)submandibular node
The left and right halves of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue drains to submandibular lymph nodes, while the posterior one-third of the tongue drains to the jugulo-omohyoid nodes.
The afferents of the submandibular glands drain the medial canthus, the cheek, the side of the nose, the upper lip, the lateral part of the lower lip, the gums, and the anterior part of the margin of the tongue.

Taste receptor

Taste2bitter taste receptorstaste cells
Embedded in this are numerous papillae that house the taste buds and their taste receptors.
TAS1R2+3 expressing cells are found in circumvallate papillae and foliate papillae near the back of the tongue and palate taste receptor cells in the roof of the mouth.

Radula

radular characteristicsradular toothtoxoglossan
Other animals may have organs that are analogous to tongues, such as a butterfly's proboscis or a radula on a mollusc, but these are not homologous with the tongues found in vertebrates, and often have little resemblance in function.
The radula (plural radulae or radulas) is an anatomical structure used by mollusks for feeding, sometimes compared to a tongue.