Topicalization

topicalizedfrontingnon-topicalisednon-topicalized statementstopicalizing
Topicalization is a mechanism of syntax that establishes an expression as the sentence or clause topic; in English, by having it appear at the front of the sentence or clause (as opposed to in a canonical position further to the right).wikipedia
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Discontinuity (linguistics)

discontinuitydiscontinuitieslong-distance dependencies
Topicalization often results in a discontinuity and is thus one of a number of established discontinuity types (the other three being wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition).
There are various types of discontinuities, the most prominent and widely studied of these being topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition.

Scrambling (linguistics)

scramblingScramblescrambled
Topicalization often results in a discontinuity and is thus one of a number of established discontinuity types (the other three being wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition).
Scrambling discontinuities are distinct from topicalization, wh-fronting, and extraposition discontinuities.

Wh-movement

wh''-frontingwh-frontingfronted
Topicalization often results in a discontinuity and is thus one of a number of established discontinuity types (the other three being wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition).
Wh-movement often results in a discontinuity, and in that regard, it is one of (at least) four widely acknowledged discontinuity types, the others being topicalization, scrambling, and extraposition.

Topic and comment

topictopic–commenttheme
Topicalization is a mechanism of syntax that establishes an expression as the sentence or clause topic; in English, by having it appear at the front of the sentence or clause (as opposed to in a canonical position further to the right).
Topicalization

Constituent (linguistics)

constituentconstituentssyntactic constituents
Topicalization is also used as a constituency test; an expression that can be topicalized is deemed a constituent.
15 of the most commonly used tests are listed next: 1) coordination (conjunction), 2) pro-form substitution (replacement), 3) topicalization (fronting), 4) do-so-substitution, 5) one-substitution, 6) answer ellipsis (question test), 7) clefting, 8) VP-ellipsis, 9) pseudoclefting, 10) passivization, 11) omission (deletion), 12) intrusion, 13) wh-fronting, 14) general substitution, 15) right node raising (RNR).

Extraposition

Topicalization often results in a discontinuity and is thus one of a number of established discontinuity types (the other three being wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition).
This aspect of extraposition is unlike topicalization and wh-fronting, two other mechanisms that often generate discontinuities.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
Topicalization is a mechanism of syntax that establishes an expression as the sentence or clause topic; in English, by having it appear at the front of the sentence or clause (as opposed to in a canonical position further to the right).
Topicalization

Syntactic movement

movementtracemovements
These more layered structures are likely to address topicalization in terms of movement or copying, as illustrated with the following two trees:
Movement is the traditional "transformational" means of overcoming the discontinuities associated with wh-fronting, topicalization, extraposition, scrambling, inversion, and shifting, e.g.

Ellen Prince

Prince, Ellen
Prince, Ellen. 1998. On the limits of syntax, with reference to topicalization and left-dislocation. In: Cullicover, P., McNally, L. (Eds.), Syntax and Semantics, vol. 29. Academic Press, New York, pp. 281–302
She analyzed the pragmatic functions of syntactic constructions in English and Yiddish, including varieties of cleft and left-periphery constructions, such as topicalization and left-dislocation.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
If, in contrast, less layered structures are assumed as for example in dependency grammar, then many instances of topicalization do not involve a discontinuity, but rather just inversion.
Comprehensive dependency grammar accounts of topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, and extraposition are mostly absent from many established dependency-based frameworks.

Catena (linguistics)

catenacatenae
The words corresponding to the nodes in red form a catena (Latin for 'chain', plural catenae). A theory of topicalization is then built up in part by examining the nature of these catenae for feature passing.
The catena has served as the basis for the analysis of a number of phenomena of syntax, such as idiosyncratic meaning, ellipsis mechanisms (e.g. gapping, stripping, VP-ellipsis, pseudogapping, sluicing, answer ellipsis, comparative deletion), predicate-argument structures, and discontinuities (topicalization, wh-fronting, scrambling, extraposition, etc.).

Clause

clausesfinite clauseclausal
Topicalization is a mechanism of syntax that establishes an expression as the sentence or clause topic; in English, by having it appear at the front of the sentence or clause (as opposed to in a canonical position further to the right).

Argument (linguistics)

argumentargumentsverb argument
The topicalization of arguments in English is rare, whereas circumstantial adjuncts are often topicalized.

Adjunct (grammar)

adjunctadjunctsadnominal
The topicalization of arguments in English is rare, whereas circumstantial adjuncts are often topicalized.

Markedness

unmarkedmarked(unmarked)
Most languages allow topicalization, and in some languages, topicalization occurs much more frequently and/or in a much less marked manner than in English.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structureconstituencyconstituency grammar
If one assumes the layered structures associated with many phrase structure grammars, all instances of topicalization will involve a discontinuity.

Inversion (linguistics)

inversioninvertedinverting
If, in contrast, less layered structures are assumed as for example in dependency grammar, then many instances of topicalization do not involve a discontinuity, but rather just inversion.

Government (linguistics)

governorgovernmentgovern
A link of a sort is established between the topicalized expression and its governor.

Ulster English

BelfastUlsterNorthern Irish accent
In general, Ulster English speakers' declarative sentences (with typical grammatical structure, i.e. non-topicalized statements) end with a rise in pitch, which is often heard by speakers of non-Ulster English as a question-like intonation pattern.

Hiberno-English

IrishIrelandIrish accent
An ordinarily grammatically structured (i.e. non-topicalised) declarative sentences, often, with a rising intonation at the end of the sentence (the type of intonation pattern that other English speakers usually associate with questions).

Spanish object pronouns

Simple non-emphatic clitic doubling is most often found with dative clitics, although it is occasionally found with accusative clitics as well, particularly in case of topicalization.

Khmer grammar

Khmer
Topicalization is common: the topic of the sentence is often placed at the start, with the rest of the sentence a comment on that topic.

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
The language is classified as a subject–verb–object language; however, as in most Romance languages, constituent order is highly variable and governed mainly by topicalization and focus rather than by syntax.

Tîrî language

cirmegTîrî
As indicated in the table above, Tîrî pronouns change form depending on whether they are being used as subjective, objective or free forms, the latter encompassing a variety of other pronoun usages, such as pronouns that have been topicalized and occur sentence-initially, as seen below (Osumi, 1995, pp. 39–40).

Parasitic gap

parasitic gaps
Their appearance appears to be reliant on syntactic movement (e.g. wh-movement or topicalization).