toponymtoponymsplace nameplacenametoponymicplace namesplace-nametoponomyplacenamestopographic name
Toponymy or toponomastics is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use and typology.wikipedia
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Related, more specific types of toponym include hydronym for a body of water and oronym for a mountain or hill.
Hydronymy, a subset of toponymy, the taxonomic study of place-names, is the study of the names of bodies of water, the origins of those names, and how they are transmitted through history.

George R. Stewart

George StewartStewart, George R.George Rippey Stewart
George R. Stewart theorized, in his book Names on the Globe, that Hellespont originally meant something like "narrow Pontus" or "entrance to Pontus", "Pontus" being an ancient name for the region around the Black Sea, and by extension, for the sea itself.
George Rippey Stewart (May 31, 1895 – August 22, 1980) was an American historian, toponymist, novelist, and a professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley.


Toponymy is itself a branch of onomastics, the study of names of all kinds.
Toponymy or toponomastics, the study of place names, is one of the principal branches of onomastics.

Saint Petersburg

St. PetersburgLeningradSt Petersburg
Also, in the context of Slavic nationalism, the name of Saint Petersburg was changed to the more Slavic sounding Petrograd from 1914 to 1924, then to Leningrad following the death of Vladimir Lenin and back to Saint-Peterburg in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union.
Later some streets and other toponyms were renamed accordingly.

Margaret Gelling

M. GellingMargaret Joy Gelling
Margaret Joy Gelling, (née Midgley; 29 November 1924 – 24 April 2009) was an English toponymist, known for her extensive studies of English place-names.

Albert Dauzat

Albert Dauzat (4 July 1877 – 31 October 1955) was a French linguist specializing in toponymy and onomastics.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
The word "toponymy" is derived from the Greek words tópos "place" and ónoma "name".
Modern Greek inherits most of its vocabulary from Ancient Greek, which in turn is an Indo-European language, but also includes a number of borrowings from the languages of the populations that inhabited Greece before the arrival of Proto-Greeks, some documented in Mycenaean texts; they include a large number of Greek toponyms.

Oliver Padel

Padel, O. J.O.J. PadelO. J. Padel
Oliver James Padel (born 31 October 1948 in St Pancras, London, England) is an English medievalist and toponymist specializing in Welsh and Cornish studies.

Charles Rostaing

Charles Rostaing (9 October 1904 – 24 April 1999) was a French linguist who specialised in toponymy.


The name, however, is probably derived from an older language, such as Pelasgian, which was unknown to those who explained its origin.
In western Anatolia, many toponyms with the "-ss-" infix derive from the adjectival suffix also seen in cuneiform Luwian and some Palaic; the classic example is Bronze Age Tarhuntassa (loosely, "City of the Storm God Tarhunta"), and later Parnassus may be related to the Hittite word parna- or "house".

William J. Watson

Watson, W. J.Watson, W.J.Watson
Prof William John Watson FRSE LLD (1865–1948) was a toponymist, one of the greatest Scottish scholars of the 20th century, and was the first scholar to place the study of Scottish place names on a firm linguistic basis.

Isaac Taylor (priest)

Isaac TaylorTaylorCanon Isaac Taylor
Isaac Taylor (2 May 1829 – 18 October 1901), son of Isaac Taylor, was a philologist, toponymist, and Anglican canon of York (from 1885).

Germanic toponymy

Germanic placename etymologyGermanicplace names
Germanic toponyms are the names given to places by Germanic peoples and tribes.

Toponymic surname

locational surnametoponymichabitational surname
A toponymic surname or topographic surname is a surname derived from a place name.

Adrian Room

Adrian Richard West Room (27 September 1933, Melksham – 6 November 2010, Stamford, Lincolnshire) was a British toponymist and onomastician, a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and a prolific author of reference works relating primarily to the origins of word and place-names.

List of generic forms in place names in Ireland and the United Kingdom

List of generic forms in British place names-tonList of generic forms in place names in the United Kingdom and Ireland
The study of place names is called toponymy; for a more detailed examination of this subject in relation to British and Irish place names, refer to Toponymy in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

Eilert Ekwall

EkwallEkwall, Eilert
He wrote works on the history of English, but he is best known as the author of numerous important books on English placenames (in the broadest sense) and personal names.

Albert Hugh Smith

A.H. SmithHugh Smith
His PhD thesis was on the place-names of the North Riding and the study of place-names remained of continuing interest to him, resulting in several publications.


gentilicdemonymsinhabitants are called
(Usually suffixed to a truncated form of the toponym, or place-name.)

Welsh toponymy

nameWelsh placenameWelsh placenames
The study of place-names (or toponymy) in Wales reveals significant features of the country's history and geography, as well as the development of the Welsh language.

Place names in Ireland

Place names in IrishIrish toponymyIrish language names
The study of placenames in Ireland unveils features of the country's history and geography, and the development of the Irish language.

Place names in Japan

Japanese place namesplace namesJapanese place name
Japanese place names include names for geographic features, present and former administrative divisions, transportation facilities such as railroad stations, and historic sites in Japan.

List of English exonyms for Italian toponyms

Italianin English
This list of English exonyms for Italian toponyms is a compilation of Italian toponyms, names of cities, regions, rivers, mountains and other geographical features, in an Italian-speaking area (principally in Italy and Switzerland) which have traditional English exonyms.

Toponymy in the United Kingdom and Ireland

British toponymyToponymy in Great BritainPlace-names
Britain and Ireland have a very varied toponymy due the different settlement patterns, political and linguistic histories.