A report on Torah im Derech Eretz

A blacksmith at work. Illustration by Ephraim Moses Lilien (1874–1925).
"Whilst time is unveiling, Science is exploring Nature". 18th century engraving by William Skelton (1763–1848), symbolizing knowledge of the natural world.
Understanding, mural by Robert Lewis Reid (1862–1929) in Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.
Samson Raphael Hirsch.
Interaction with modern culture is one aspect of Torah im Derech Eretz. Hirsch saw a common ground in values exposed by a philosopher like Schiller. The image, by Luise Duttenhofer (1776–1829), depicts Schiller reading.
Torah im Derech Eretz shaped the curriculum of the Beis Yaakov school system. The second graduating class of the Beis Yaakov in Łódź, Poland, in 1934.

Torah im Derech Eretz (תורה עם דרך ארץ – Torah with "the way of the land" )

- Torah im Derech Eretz
A blacksmith at work. Illustration by Ephraim Moses Lilien (1874–1925).

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Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch

Samson Raphael Hirsch

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Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch
S.R. Hirsch in Oldenburg (between 1830 and 1841)
An 1868 illustration (despite the caption mentioning the "Dr." title, Hirsch did not have a doctorate).
Samson-Raphael-Hirsch-Schule, the Frankfurt School founded by Hirsch in 1853 (formerly "Realschule und Lyzeum der Israelitischen Religionsgesellschaft", renamed 1928).
Plaque acknowledging the school's forced closure in 1939; its last part reads: "The school conveyed traditional Jewish values, together with a secular education. It was a model for Modern Orthodox schools."
A column in the Vienna-based newspaper Die Neuzeit concerning Austritt, as described aside.
Tombstone of R. Hirsch and his Wife Johanna
The Book of Psalms translated and elucidated by Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch. Frankfurt A.M. 1882.
Yeshiva Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, Washington Heights, founded 1944

Samson Raphael Hirsch (June 20, 1808 – December 31, 1888) was a German Orthodox rabbi best known as the intellectual founder of the Torah im Derech Eretz school of contemporary Orthodox Judaism.

Modern Orthodox Judaism

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Movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize Jewish values and the observance of Jewish law with the secular, modern world.

Movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize Jewish values and the observance of Jewish law with the secular, modern world.

Hirsch's Torah im Derech Eretz ( – "Torah with the 'Way of the World'/Society") is a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism that formalizes a relationship between halakhically observant Judaism and the modern world.

Visitors in the Orthodox Jewish cemetery in Budapest, circa 1920; the word "Orthodox" (ארטאדאקסען) is painted on the wall, second to the left. Traditionalist Jews in Hungary were the first anywhere to use the term "orthodox" in the formation of an independent Orthodox organization in 1871.

Orthodox Judaism

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Collective term for the traditionalist and theologically conservative branches of contemporary Judaism.

Collective term for the traditionalist and theologically conservative branches of contemporary Judaism.

Visitors in the Orthodox Jewish cemetery in Budapest, circa 1920; the word "Orthodox" (ארטאדאקסען) is painted on the wall, second to the left. Traditionalist Jews in Hungary were the first anywhere to use the term "orthodox" in the formation of an independent Orthodox organization in 1871.
A Jewish man pilloried in the synagogue, a common punishment in the pre-emancipation Jewish community in Europe.
Moses Sofer of Pressburg, considered the father of Orthodoxy in general and ultra-Orthodoxy in particular.
Isaac Bernays in clerical vestments. The ministerial style of dress seen here was ubiquitous among German and Western European (neo)-Orthodox Jews.
David Zvi Hoffmann, the single most prominent Orthodox theoretician who dealt with the critical-historical method.
Young Samson Raphael Hirsch, the ideologue of Orthodox secession in Germany.
Chaim Sofer, the leading halakhic authority of the Hungarian "zealots" during the Orthodox-Neolog schism.
Beth Medrash Govoha (Hebrew:בית מדרש גבוה), in Lakewood, New Jersey, U.S., the world's largest yeshiva outside Israel
Haredi schoolgirls at the Western Wall.
Ultra-Orthodox demonstrators (over 300,000 took part), protesting for the right of Yeshiva students to avoid conscription to the Israeli Army. Jerusalem, 2 March 2014.

The combination of religious conservatism and embrace of modernity in everything else was emulated elsewhere, earning the epithet "Neo-Orthodoxy".

Shimon Schwab

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Orthodox rabbi and communal leader in Germany and the United States.

Orthodox rabbi and communal leader in Germany and the United States.

Shimon Schwab Building, Washington Heights

He was an ideologue of Agudath Israel of America, specifically defending the Torah im Derech Eretz approach to Jewish life.

Nachmanides

Divine providence in Judaism

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Discussed throughout rabbinic literature, by the classical Jewish philosophers, and by the tradition of Jewish mysticism.

Discussed throughout rabbinic literature, by the classical Jewish philosophers, and by the tradition of Jewish mysticism.

Nachmanides
The Baal Shem Tov travelled in the Ukrainian Carpathians before his teaching
The rebuilt synagogue of the Baal Shem Tov in Medzhybizh

Derech Eretz (דרך ארץ): involvement with the natural world, particularly for purposes of livelihood.

The synagogue in 2011

Khal Adath Jeshurun

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Orthodox German Jewish Ashkenazi congregation in the Washington Heights neighborhood, in the New York City borough of Manhattan.

Orthodox German Jewish Ashkenazi congregation in the Washington Heights neighborhood, in the New York City borough of Manhattan.

The synagogue in 2011
Synagogue
Rabbi S.R. Hirsch
186th Street school

Khal Adath Jeshurun bases its approach, and structure, on Hirsch's philosophy of Torah im Derech Eretz; it was re-established according to the protocol originally drawn in 1850, to which the congregation continues to adhere.

Pirkei Avot with Judeo-Persian [Bukharian] translation

Pirkei Avot

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Compilation of the ethical teachings and maxims from Rabbinic Jewish tradition.

Compilation of the ethical teachings and maxims from Rabbinic Jewish tradition.

Pirkei Avot with Judeo-Persian [Bukharian] translation
First page of a medieval manuscript of Maimonides's commentary on Pirkei Avot, The Eight Chapters.

"Torah learning is best combined with an occupation, because the effort of both will keep one from sin. Torah study alone without work will in the end be nullified and lead to sin." (2:2) (See Torah im Derech Eretz.)

Isaac Breuer

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Isaac Breuer (יצחק ברויאר; 1883–1946) was a rabbi in the German Neo-Orthodoxy movement of his maternal grandfather Samson Raphael Hirsch, and was the first president of Poalei Agudat Yisrael.

Torah Umadda

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Worldview in Orthodox Judaism concerning the relationship between the secular world and Judaism, and in particular between secular knowledge and Jewish religious knowledge.

Worldview in Orthodox Judaism concerning the relationship between the secular world and Judaism, and in particular between secular knowledge and Jewish religious knowledge.

Torah im Derech Eretz—"Torah with worldly involvement"—is a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism concerning the relationship between Torah Judaism and the modern world, first articulated by Samson Raphael Hirsch in c. 1840.

Joseph Breuer

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Rabbi and community leader in Germany and the United States.

Rabbi and community leader in Germany and the United States.

Torah im Derech Eretz: Breuer saw the risk of misinterpretation of his grandfather's ideas on how Judaism could be harmonised within limits with general culture of the outside world. He repeatedly stated that compromising on Jewishness and halakha was at variance with Torah im Derech Eretz. With the rise of the yeshiva movement, he also remarked that Torah im Derech Eretz was by no means a unique temporary measure - as was often claimed by protagonists of the "Torah only" view.