Tories (British political party)

ToryToriesTory PartyPittitePittitesConservativeBritish ToriesBritish Tory partyCourtCourt party
The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries.wikipedia
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William Pitt the Younger

William PittPittPitt the Younger
A few decades later, a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries.

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Duke of WellingtonWellingtonArthur Wellesley
The Earl of Liverpool was succeeded by fellow Tory Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, whose term included the Catholic Emancipation, which occurred mostly due to the election of Daniel O'Connell as a Catholic MP from Ireland.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.

Political party

political partiespartyparties
The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries.
The Whig faction originally organised itself around support for protestant constitutional monarchy as opposed to absolute rule, whereas the conservative Tory faction (originally the Royalist or Cavalier faction of the English Civil War) supported a strong monarchy.

Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool

Lord LiverpoolEarl of LiverpoolThe Earl of Liverpool
A few decades later, a new Tory party would rise to establish a hold on government between 1783 and 1830, with William Pitt the Younger followed by Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool.
By the time of his death, however, the Tory Party was ripping itself apart.

Conservative Party (UK)

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
One faction, led by Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, survived to become the modern Conservative Party, whose members are commonly still referred to as Tories as they still often follow and promote the ideology of Toryism.
The Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party.

Corn Laws

Corn Lawrepeal of the Corn LawsImportation Act 1815
However, Peel lost many of his supporters by repealing the Corn Laws, causing the party to break apart.
The Prime Minister, Sir Robert Peel, a Conservative, achieved repeal with the support of the Whigs in Parliament, overcoming the opposition of most of his own party.

Robert Peel

Sir Robert PeelPeelSir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet
Under the leadership of Robert Peel, the Tamworth Manifesto was issued, which began to transform the Tories into the Conservative Party.
Historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote: "Peel was in the first rank of 19th century statesmen. He carried Catholic Emancipation; he repealed the Corn Laws; he created the modern Conservative Party on the ruins of the old Toryism."

Glorious Revolution

Revolution of 1688RevolutionGlorious Revolution of 1688
No subsequent British monarch would attempt to rule without Parliament, and after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, political disputes would be resolved through elections and parliamentary manoeuvring, rather than by an appeal to force.
His primary support base in England were Tory members of the Church of England, who remained loyal until actions like the prosecution of seven Anglican bishops seemed to go beyond tolerance and into an assault on the church.

Whigs (British political party)

WhigWhigsWhig Party
The first Tories emerged in 1678 in England, when they opposed the Whig-supported Exclusion Bill which set out to disinherit the heir presumptive James, Duke of York, who eventually became James II of England and VII of Scotland.
Between the 1680s and 1850s, they contested power with their rivals, the Tories.

Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Queen AnneAnnePrincess Anne
Despite the failure of their founding principles, the Tories remained a powerful political party during the reigns of the next two monarchs, particularly that of Queen Anne.
During her reign, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more likely to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs.

Henry Sacheverell

Dr SacheverellSacheverellDr Henry Sacheverell
In early 1710, the prosecution by the Whig government of the ultra-Tory preacher Dr. Henry Sacheverell for sermons delivered the previous year, led to the Sacheverell riots and brought the ministry into popular discredit.
He was subsequently impeached by the House of Commons and though he was found guilty, his light punishment was seen as a vindication and he became a popular figure in the country, contributing to the Tories' landslide victory at the general election of 1710.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

Duke of MarlboroughMarlboroughJohn Churchill
Although William's successor Anne had considerable Tory sympathies and excluded the Junto Whigs from power, after a brief and unsuccessful experiment with an exclusively Tory government she generally continued William's policy of balancing the parties, supported by her moderate Tory ministers, the Duke of Marlborough and Lord Godolphin.
Incurring Anne's disfavour, and caught between Tory and Whig factions, Marlborough was forced from office and went into self-imposed exile.

Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke

BolingbrokeLord BolingbrokeHenry St. John
The new Tory ministry was dominated by Harley, Chancellor of the Exchequer (later Lord Treasurer) and Viscount Bolingbroke, Secretary of State.
He was a leader of the Tories, and supported the Church of England politically despite his antireligious views and opposition to theology.

Sacheverell riots

riotsriots in LondonSacheverell rioters
In early 1710, the prosecution by the Whig government of the ultra-Tory preacher Dr. Henry Sacheverell for sermons delivered the previous year, led to the Sacheverell riots and brought the ministry into popular discredit.
The Sacheverell riots were a series of outbreaks of public disorder, which spread across England during the spring, summer and autumn of 1710 in which supporters of the Tories attacked Dissenters', particularly Presbyterians', homes and meeting-houses, whose congregations tended to support the Whigs.

Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer

Robert HarleyHarleyRobert Harley, Earl of Oxford
The new Tory ministry was dominated by Harley, Chancellor of the Exchequer (later Lord Treasurer) and Viscount Bolingbroke, Secretary of State. This tight-knit political grouping was opposed by the "Country Whigs", led by Robert Harley, who gradually merged with the Tory opposition in the later 1690s.
He began his career as a Whig, before defecting to a new Tory Ministry.

Hanoverian Tory

Hanoverian Tories
The Elector George succeeded to the throne entirely peacefully, supported by the Hanoverian Tory grouping.
Hanoverian Tories were Tory supporters of the Hanoverian Succession of 1714.

Church in Danger

They were backed by a strong majority in the Parliament elected in 1710, rallying under the banner of "Church in Danger".
'Church in Danger' was a political slogan used by the Tory party, and particularly by High Tories in elections during Queen Anne's reign.

War of the Spanish Succession

War of Spanish SuccessionSpanish War of SuccessionSpanish Succession War
The stresses of the War of the Spanish Succession (begun in 1701) led most of the Tories to withdraw into opposition by 1708, so that Marlborough and Godolphin were heading an administration dominated by the Junto Whigs.
The Tory majority in the English Parliament objected to the Partition Treaties, chiefly the French acquisition of Sicily, an important link in the lucrative Levant trade.

Whig Junto

JuntoJunto WhigsJunto Whig
His early ministry was largely Tory, but gradually the government came to be dominated by the so-called Junto Whigs.
However, King William's death in March 1702 delayed their return: Queen Anne detested them and refused to include them in the ministry, which was instead dominated by High Tories, with whom her sympathies lay.

Eveline Cruickshanks

CruickshanksCruickshanks, Eveline
The historian Eveline Cruickshanks stated that "[w]hat took place in 1715 was not a change to an all-Whig ministry, it was a whole social revolution".
Eveline Cruickshanks (born 1926) is an historian of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century British political history, specialising in Jacobitism and Toryism.

William Shippen (MP)

William Shippen
The Tories were divided over whether to cooperate with the opposition Whigs against Walpole, with those in favour consisting of the Hanoverian faction led by Sir William Wyndham and with those opposed making up the Jacobite faction headed by William Shippen.
30 July 1673 – 1 May 1743) was an English Jacobite and Tory politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1707 to 1743.

Coronation riots

Major riotsriotingcoronation of George I
A series of riots against the coronation of George I and the new Hanoverian-Whig regime (in which the mob voiced their support for Jacobitism and local Tory parliamentary candidates) led to the Whig government strengthening their power by passing the Riot Act, suspending habeas corpus and increasing the army (including by importing 6,000 Dutch troops).
After his arrival in Britain in September, George promptly dismissed the Tories from office and appointed a Whig-dominated government.

1715 England riots

1715 riotscontinued into the following yearfamous riots
A series of riots against the coronation of George I and the new Hanoverian-Whig regime (in which the mob voiced their support for Jacobitism and local Tory parliamentary candidates) led to the Whig government strengthening their power by passing the Riot Act, suspending habeas corpus and increasing the army (including by importing 6,000 Dutch troops).
After his arrival in Britain in September, George promptly dismissed the Tories from office and appointed a Whig-dominated government.

Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 3rd Baronet

Sir Watkin Williams-WynnWatkin Williams-WynnSir Watkin Williams Wynn
It was signed by the Duke of Beaufort (one of the four richest people in Britain), Lord Barrymore, Lord Orrery, Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Sir John Hynde Cotton and Sir Robert Abdy.
1692 – 26 September 1749) was a Welsh landowner, Tory politician and prominent Jacobite sympathiser.

William III of England

William IIIWilliam of OrangeKing William III
The Tories' sole consolation was that the monarchs chosen were close to the main line of succession — William III was James II's nephew and William's wife Mary was James's elder daughter.
When the majority of Tory Lords proposed to acclaim her as sole ruler, William threatened to leave the country immediately.