Tourette syndrome

Tourette's syndromeTouretteTourettesTourette's DisorderTourette’s syndromeGilles de la Tourette syndromeTourettes SyndromeBrissaud diseaseCombined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder (Gilles de la Tourette)Gilles de la Tourette
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.wikipedia
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Georges Gilles de la Tourette

Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la TouretteGilles de La Tourette
The condition was named by Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) on behalf of his resident, Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette (1857–1904), a French physician and neurologist, who published an account of nine patients with Tourette's in 1885.
Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette (30 October 1857 – 26 May 1904) was a French physician and the namesake of Tourette's syndrome, a neurological condition characterized by physical and verbal tics.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivity
Among those who are seen in specialty clinics, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are present at higher rates.

Neurodevelopmental disorder

neurodevelopmental disordersneurodevelopmentalneurodevelopmental disability
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.

Coprolalia

coprolalic
It was once considered a rare and bizarre syndrome, most often associated with coprolalia (the utterance of obscene words or socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks), but this symptom is present in only a small minority of people with Tourette's.
Coprolalia is an occasional characteristic of tic disorders, in particular Tourette syndrome, although it is not required for a diagnosis of Tourette's and only about 10% of Tourette's patients exhibit coprolalia.

Tic disorder

tic disorderstics
Tourette's is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders, which includes provisional, transient and persistent (chronic) tics.

Sensory phenomena

These urges and sensations, preceding the expression of the movement or vocalization as a tic, are referred to as "premonitory sensory phenomena" or premonitory urges.
Sensory phenomena are general feelings, urges or bodily sensations that precede or accompany repetitive behaviors associated with Tourette syndrome and tic disorders.

DSM-5

DSM-Vmental health disordersDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
The fifth version of the DSM (DSM-5), published in May 2013, reclassified Tourette's and tic disorders as motor disorders listed in the neurodevelopmental disorder category, and replaced transient tic disorder with provisional tic disorder, but made few other significant changes.

Tourettism

In other cases, tics are associated with disorders other than Tourette's, a phenomenon known as tourettism.
Tourettism refers to the presence of Tourette-like symptoms in the absence of Tourette syndrome, as the result of other diseases or conditions, known as "secondary causes".

James F. Leckman

Leckman
A 1998 study published by Leckman and colleagues from the Yale Child Study Center showed that the ages of highest tic severity are eight to twelve (with an average of age ten), with tics steadily declining for most patients as they pass through adolescence.
James Frederick Leckman, M.D., is a child psychiatrist and psychoanalyst and the Neison Harris Professor of Child Psychiatry, Psychiatry, Psychology and Pediatrics at the Yale School of Medicine, recognized for his research in Tourette syndrome (TS) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD).

Echolalia

echolalicechologiarepeating snippets people have said
Echolalia (repeating the words of others) and palilalia (repeating one's own words) occur in a minority of cases, while the most common initial motor and vocal tics are, respectively, eye blinking and throat clearing.
Echophenomena (particularly echolalia and echopraxia) were defining characteristics in the early descriptions of Tourette syndrome (TS).

Yale Child Study Center

Yale Clinic of Child DevelopmentYale University Child Study CenterClinic of Child Development
A 1998 study published by Leckman and colleagues from the Yale Child Study Center showed that the ages of highest tic severity are eight to twelve (with an average of age ten), with tics steadily declining for most patients as they pass through adolescence.
Topics of investigation include autism and related disorders, Tourette syndrome, other pediatric mental health concerns, parenting, and neurobiology.

High-functioning autism

high functioning autismhigh-functioninghigh-functioning autistic
Several reports have documented a comorbidity between Tourette syndrome and Asperger syndrome, or high-functioning autism.
Observable comorbidities associated with HFA include ADHD, Tourette syndrome, and possibly criminal behavior.

Asperger syndrome

Asperger's syndromeAspergerAsperger’s syndrome
Several reports have documented a comorbidity between Tourette syndrome and Asperger syndrome, or high-functioning autism.
However, in addition to this, various studies have reported a consistent comorbidity between AS and Tourette syndrome in the range of 8–20%, with one figure as high as 80% for tics of some kind or another, for which several explanations have been put forward, including common genetic factors and dopamine, glutamate, or serotonin abnormalities.

Jean-Martin Charcot

CharcotJean Martin CharcotJean Charcot
The condition was named by Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) on behalf of his resident, Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette (1857–1904), a French physician and neurologist, who published an account of nine patients with Tourette's in 1885.
Charcot bestowed the eponym for Tourette syndrome in honor of his student, Georges Gilles de la Tourette.

Spectrum disorder

spectrumschizophrenia spectrumpsychotic spectrum
Tourette's is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders, which includes provisional, transient and persistent (chronic) tics.
An obsessive–compulsive spectrum – this can include a wide range of disorders from Tourette syndrome to the hypochondrias, as well as forms of eating disorder, itself a spectrum of related conditions.

PANDAS

Childhood acute neuropsychiatric symptomsPANDAS syndromePediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections
Children who meet five diagnostic criteria are classified, according to the hypothesis, as having Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS).
The PANDAS hypothesis is controversial; whether it is a distinct entity differing from other cases of Tourette syndrome (TS)/OCD is debated.

Basal ganglia

basal nucleibasalbasal ganglia (BG)
Tics are believed to result from dysfunction in cortical and subcortical regions, the thalamus, basal ganglia and frontal cortex.
Those of behaviour include Tourette syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and addiction.

Neurology

neurologistneurologicalneurologists
The condition was named by Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893) on behalf of his resident, Georges Albert Édouard Brutus Gilles de la Tourette (1857–1904), a French physician and neurologist, who published an account of nine patients with Tourette's in 1885.
Some of the commonly encountered conditions treated by neurologists include headaches, radiculopathy, neuropathy, stroke, dementia, seizures and epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome, multiple sclerosis, head trauma, sleep disorders, neuromuscular diseases, and various infections and tumors of the nervous system.

Dystonia

dystonicdystonia musculorum deformanssensory trick
In contrast to the abnormal movements of other movement disorders such as choreas, dystonias, myoclonus, and dyskinesias, the tics of Tourette's are temporarily suppressible, nonrhythmic, and often preceded by an unwanted premonitory urge.
Sufferers may be diagnosed as having similar and perhaps related disorders including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, carpal tunnel syndrome, TMD, Tourette's syndrome, conversion disorder or other neuromuscular movement disorders.

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

obsessive-compulsive disorderobsessive compulsive disorderOCD
Among those who are seen in specialty clinics, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are present at higher rates.
People with OCD may be diagnosed with other conditions, as well as or instead of OCD, such as the aforementioned obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, social anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, Tourette syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dermatillomania (compulsive skin picking), body dysmorphic disorder and trichotillomania (hair pulling).

Palilalia

Echolalia (repeating the words of others) and palilalia (repeating one's own words) occur in a minority of cases, while the most common initial motor and vocal tics are, respectively, eye blinking and throat clearing.
Palilalia occurs most commonly in Tourette syndrome and may be present in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

Myoclonus

myoclonicmyoclonic jerkmyoclonic jerks
In contrast to the abnormal movements of other movement disorders such as choreas, dystonias, myoclonus, and dyskinesias, the tics of Tourette's are temporarily suppressible, nonrhythmic, and often preceded by an unwanted premonitory urge.

Sydenham's chorea

Sydenham choreaRheumatic choreaChorea minor
Other conditions that may manifest tics or stereotyped movements include developmental disorders; autism spectrum disorders and stereotypic movement disorder; Sydenham's chorea; idiopathic dystonia; and genetic conditions such as Huntington's disease, neuroacanthocytosis, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Wilson's disease, and tuberous sclerosis.
It may be confused with other conditions such as lupus and Tourette syndrome.

Treatment of Tourette syndrome

available treatmentsintervention for Tourette syndromePractice guidelines for the treatment of tics
Practice guidelines for the treatment of tics were published by the American Academy of Neurology in 2019.
Tourette syndrome (also Tourette's syndrome or TS) is an inherited neurodevelopmental disorder disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of motor and phonic tics.

Movement disorders

movement disorderextrapyramidal disorderAbnormal involuntary movements
In contrast to the abnormal movements of other movement disorders such as choreas, dystonias, myoclonus, and dyskinesias, the tics of Tourette's are temporarily suppressible, nonrhythmic, and often preceded by an unwanted premonitory urge.