Toxicology

toxicologisttoxicologicaltoxicologistsHistory of toxicologyclinical toxicologytoxicologictoxicological analysistoxicological propertiestoxicological studiesChemical influences
Toxicology is a scientific discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.wikipedia
870 Related Articles

Toxicity

toxicnon-toxicnontoxic
Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage, duration of exposure (whether it is acute or chronic), route of exposure, species, age, sex, and environment.
A central concept of toxicology is that the effects of a toxicant are dose-dependent; even water can lead to water intoxication when taken in too high a dose, whereas for even a very toxic substance such as snake venom there is a dose below which there is no detectable toxic effect.

Ibn Wahshiyya

Ibn WahshīyaIbn-WahshiyyaNabataean corpus
Ibn Wahshiyya wrote the Book on Poisons in the 9th or 10th century.
9th/10th centuries) was an Arab alchemist, agriculturalist, farm toxicologist, Egyptologist, and historian born at Qusayn near Kufa in Iraq.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Toxicology is a scientific discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.

Paracelsus

ParacelsianParacelsanParacelsians
Theophrastus Phillipus Auroleus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493–1541) (also referred to as Paracelsus, from his belief that his studies were above or beyond the work of Celsus – a Roman physician from the first century) is also considered "the father" of toxicology.
He is credited as the "father of toxicology".

Pharmacology

pharmacologistpharmacologicalpharmacologically
Toxicology is a scientific discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. Forensic toxicology is the discipline that makes use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use.
Pharmacology is closely related to toxicology.

Evidence-based toxicology

There is a movement for evidence-based toxicology as part of the larger movement towards evidence-based practices.
The discipline of evidence-based toxicology (EBT) strives to transparently, consistently, and objectively assess available scientific evidence in order to answer questions in toxicology, the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical, or biological agents on living organisms and the environment, including the prevention and amelioration of such effects.

Poisoning

poisonedpoisoningsdeath by poisoning
Toxicologists are experts on poisons and poisoning.
Toxicology is the study and practice of the symptoms, mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of poisoning.

Mathieu Orfila

Mateu '''OrfilaOrfilaMateu Orfila
Mathieu Orfila is considered the modern father of toxicology, having given the subject its first formal treatment in 1813 in his Traité des poisons, also called Toxicologie générale.
Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila (Catalan: Mateu Josep Bonaventura Orfila i Rotger) (24 April 1787 – 12 March 1853) was a Spanish toxicologist and chemist, the founder of the science of toxicology.

The dose makes the poison

as with absolutely all other substancesconcentratedOnly the dose makes a thing not a poison
This is often condensed to: "The dose makes the poison" or in Latin "Sola dosis facit venenum".
"The dose makes the poison" (sola dosis facit venenum) is an adage intended to indicate a basic principle of toxicology.

Median lethal dose

LD50LD 50 LC50
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD 50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC 50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt 50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.

Poison

poisonouspoisonstoxic substances
Toxicologists are experts on poisons and poisoning.
Paracelsus (1493–1541), the father of toxicology, once wrote: "Everything is poison, there is poison in everything. Only the dose makes a thing not a poison"

Animal testing

animal researchanimal experimentationlaboratory animal
As of 2014, such animal testing provides information that is not available by other means about how substances function in a living organism.
Toxicology testing became important in the 20th century.

Medical toxicology

medical toxicologistmedical toxicologistsClinical toxicologists
Medical toxicology is the discipline that requires physician status (MD or DO degree plus specialty education and experience).
Medical toxicology is a subspecialty of medicine focusing on toxicology and providing the diagnosis, management, and prevention of poisoning and other adverse effects due to medications, occupational and environmental toxicants, and biological agents.

Forensic toxicology

forensic toxicologicalforensic toxicologisttoxicology examination
Main article: Forensic toxicology
Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use.

Zebrafish

Danio reriozebra fishZebra danio
Example of model organisms are Galleria mellonella, which can replace small mammals, and Zebrafish, which allow for the study of toxicology in a lower order vertebrate in vivo.
rerio'' has yielded advances in the fields of developmental biology, oncology, toxicology, reproductive studies, teratology, genetics, neurobiology, environmental sciences, stem cell research, regenerative medicine, muscular dystrophies and evolutionary theory.

Pharmacist

pharmacistsdruggistchemist
Clinical toxicology is the discipline that can be practiced not only by physicians but also other health professionals with a master's degree in clinical toxicology: physician extenders (physician assistants, nurse practitioners), nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals.

Galleria mellonella

greater wax mothGalleriaG. mellonella
Example of model organisms are Galleria mellonella, which can replace small mammals, and Zebrafish, which allow for the study of toxicology in a lower order vertebrate in vivo.
The waxworms of the greater wax moth have been shown to be an excellent model organism for in vivo toxicology and pathogenicity testing, replacing the use of small mammals in such experiments.

Hippolyte Visart de Bocarmé

This allowed him to identify the use of nicotine as a poison in the Bocarmé murder case, providing the evidence needed to convict the Belgian Count Hippolyte Visart de Bocarmé of killing his brother-in-law.
The well-known Belgian chemist Jean Servais Stas then proved with a toxicologic examination that Visart de Bocarmé had used tobacco extract to poison his brother-in-law.

Aquatic toxicology

aquatic toxicitytoxic to fishaquatic acute toxicity
Aquatic toxicology is a multidisciplinary field which integrates toxicology, aquatic ecology and aquatic chemistry.

Clinical chemistry

clinical biochemistrychemical pathologyblood chemistry
Forensic toxicology is the discipline that makes use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death, poisoning, and drug use.

Automatism (toxicology)

Automatism, in toxicology, refers to a tendency to take a drug over and over again, forgetting each time that one has already taken the dose.

History of poison

criminalpoisontoyed with the idea of poisoning many
Poison has allowed much progress in branches, toxicology, and technology, among other sciences.

Environmental toxicology

environmental toxicologisteffects of chemicalswildlife toxicologist
Rachel Carson is considered the mother of environmental toxicology, as she made it a distinct field within toxicology in 1962 with the publication of her book Silent Spring, which covered the effects of uncontrolled pesticide use.

Occupational toxicology

industrial toxicology
Occupational (or industrial) toxicology is the application of the principles and methodology of toxicology to understanding and managing chemical and biological hazards encountered at work.

Ecotoxicology

ecotoxicologicaleco-toxicologicaleco-toxicological tool
Ecotoxicology is a multidisciplinary field, which integrates toxicology and ecology.