A report on Trachea and Vagus nerve

Conducting passages
Plan of the upper portions of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
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H&E stained fibers of the vagus nerve (bottom right) innervate the sinoatrial node tissue (middle left)
Lymph nodes of the trachea.
Inferior view of the human brain, with the cranial nerves labeled.
Tracheal diverticulum as seen on axial CT imaging
Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra
Tracheal system of dissected cockroach. The largest tracheae run across the width of the body of the cockroach and are horizontal in this image. Scale bar, 2 mm.
Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery
The tracheal system branches into progressively smaller tubes, here supplying the crop of the cockroach. Scale bar, 2 mm.
The arch of the aorta, and its branches
thumb|Cross section of a trachea and esophagus
Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull, and the brain
The sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles lie on top of the upper part of the trachea
The tracheobronchial lymph glands
The thyroid gland also lies on top of the trachea, and lies below the cricoid cartilage.
Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive
Cross-section
Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view
Cross-section of the trachea, with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cells labelled
Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ
Magnified cross-section of the cartilage of the trachea.
The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses
Trachea
The celiac ganglia with the sympathetic plexuses of the abdominal viscera radiating from the ganglia
Coronal section of larynx and upper part of trachea
The position and relation of the esophagus in the cervical region and in the posterior mediastinum, seen from behind
alt=Trachea (mammal) cross-section high resolution|Trachea (mammal) cross-section high resolution
The thyroid gland and its relations
alt=Trachea (mammal) cross-section low resolution|Trachea (mammal) cross-section low resolution
The thymus of a full-term fetus, exposed in situ
Deep dissection of vagus nerve
Vagus nerve – dissection

The right vagus nerve gives rise to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve, which hooks around the right subclavian artery and ascends into the neck between the trachea and esophagus.

- Vagus nerve

To its sides run the carotid arteries and inferior thyroid arteries; and to its sides on its back surface run the recurrent laryngeal nerves in the upper trachea, and the vagus nerves in the lower trachea.

- Trachea
Conducting passages

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Overall

Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view

Larynx

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Anatomy of the larynx, anterolateral view
Sagittal section of the larynx and upper part of the trachea.
The basic parts of the human larynx.
Vocal cords abducted and adducted
Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
Image of endoscopy
Endoscopic image of an inflamed human larynx
Larynx. Deep dissection. Anterior view.
Larynx. Deep dissection. Posterior view.

The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck involved in breathing, producing sound and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

The larynx is innervated by branches of the vagus nerve on each side.

Course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

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Course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve
Passing under the subclavian artery, the right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a much shorter course than the left which passes under the aortic arch and ligamentum arteriosum.
Recurrent laryngeal nerve visible during resection of a goitre

The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) that supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, with the exception of the cricothyroid muscles.

After branching, the nerves typically ascend in a groove at the junction of the trachea and esophagus.

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe

Lung

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and most animals, some fish and some snails.

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and most animals, some fish and some snails.

Diagram of the human lungs with the respiratory tract visible, and different colours for each lobe
Cross-sectional detail of the lung
Thick elastic fibres from the visceral pleura (outer lining) of lung
TEM image of collagen fibres in a cross sectional slice of mammalian lung tissue.
A lobule of the lung enclosed in septa and supplied by a terminal bronchiole that branches into the respiratory bronchioles. Each respiratory bronchiole supplies the alveoli held in each acinus accompanied by a pulmonary artery branch.
Alveoli and their capillary networks.
3D Medical illustration showing different terminating ends of bronchioles.
The lungs as main part of respiratory tract
3D rendering of a high-resolution CT scan of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed in order to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.
Lungs during development, showing the early branching of the primitive bronchial buds
The effect of the respiratory muscles in expanding the rib cage.
Tissue death of the lung due to a pulmonary embolism
3D still image of constricted airways as in bronchial asthma.
Lung tissue affected by emphysema using H&E stain.
On inhalation, air travels to air sacs near the back of a bird. The air then passes through the lungs to air sacs near the front of the bird, from where the air is exhaled.
The cross-current respiratory gas exchanger in the lungs of birds. Air is forced from the air sacs unidirectionally (from left to right in the diagram) through the parabronchi. The pulmonary capillaries surround the parabronchi in the manner shown (blood flowing from below the parabronchus to above it in the diagram). Blood or air with a high oxygen content is shown in red; oxygen-poor air or blood is shown in various shades of purple-blue.
The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) retains its larval form with gills into adulthood
Book lungs of spider (shown in pink)
thumb|Chest CT (axial lung window)
thumb|Chest CT (coronal lung window)

The lungs are part of the lower respiratory tract that begins at the trachea and branches into the bronchi and bronchioles, and which receive air breathed in via the conducting zone.

Input from the parasympathetic nervous system occurs via the vagus nerve.

Human neck

Neck

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Part of the body on many vertebrates that connects the head with the torso.

Part of the body on many vertebrates that connects the head with the torso.

Human neck
Muscles in the human neck
Clear view of Adam's apple in profile.
Development of neck lines (lat.monillas) or "moon rings" due to excess fat.
The long neck is a distinguishing feature of the giraffe.

Visceral compartment accommodates the trachea, larynx, pharynx, thyroid and parathyroid glands.

Vascular compartment is paired and consists of the two carotid sheaths found on each side of the trachea. Each carotid sheath contains the vagus nerve, common carotid artery and internal jugular vein.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red

Esophagus

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Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

Organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

The digestive tract, with the esophagus marked in red
The esophagus is constricted in three places.
A mass seen during an endoscopy and an ultrasound of the mass conducted during the endoscopy session.

The esophagus is a fibromuscular tube, about 25 cm long in adults, that travels behind the trachea and heart, passes through the diaphragm, and empties into the uppermost region of the stomach.

Its smooth muscle is innervated by involuntary nerves (sympathetic nerves via the sympathetic trunk and parasympathetic nerves via the vagus nerve) and in addition voluntary nerves (lower motor neurons) which are carried in the vagus nerve to innervate its striated muscle.

The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. (Cardiac plexus labeled at center right.)

Cardiac plexus

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Plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart that innervates the heart.

Plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart that innervates the heart.

The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. (Cardiac plexus labeled at center right.)

The cardiac plexus is divided into a superficial part, which lies in the concavity of the aortic arch, and a deep part, between the aortic arch and the trachea.

It is formed by the superior cervical cardiac branch of the left sympathetic trunk and the inferior cardiac branch of the left vagus nerve.

The common carotid artery arises directly from the aorta on the left and as a branch of the brachiocephalic trunk on the right.

Common carotid artery

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In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.

In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.

The common carotid artery arises directly from the aorta on the left and as a branch of the brachiocephalic trunk on the right.
Arteries of the neck. The right common carotid artery – labeled Common caroti in the figure – divides into the right internal carotid artery and external carotid artery.
Superficial dissection of the right side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Normal carotidal arteriography
Common carotid artery
Common carotid artery – right view
Brachial plexus and common carotid artery
Common carotid artery
Common carotid artery
Right and left common carotid arteries

In front, it is separated from the manubrium of the sternum by the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles, the anterior portions of the left pleura and lung, the left brachiocephalic vein, and the remains of the thymus; behind, it lies on the trachea, esophagus, left recurrent laryngeal nerve, and thoracic duct.

To its right side below is the brachiocephalic trunk, and above, the trachea, the inferior thyroid veins, and the remains of the thymus; to its left side are the left vagus and phrenic nerves, left pleura, and lung.