Trachoma

sandy blightblinding trachomaEgyptian ophthalmiaophthalmiatracoma
Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.wikipedia
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Chlamydia trachomatis

chlamydiaC. trachomatistrachomatis
Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, serotypes (serovars) A, B, and C. It is spread by direct contact with eye, nose, and throat secretions from affected individuals, or contact with fomites (inanimate objects that carry infectious agents), such as towels and/or washcloths, that have had similar contact with these secretions.
It causes chlamydia, which can manifest in various ways, including: trachoma, lymphogranuloma venereum, nongonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, salpingitis, pelvic inflammatory disease.

Visual impairment

blindblindnessvisually impaired
This roughening can lead to pain in the eyes, breakdown of the outer surface or cornea of the eyes, and eventual blindness.
This includes cataracts, the infections river blindness and trachoma, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, uncorrected refractive errors, and some cases of childhood blindness.

Neglected tropical diseases

neglected tropical diseaseneglected diseasesneglected disease
It belongs to a group of diseases known as neglected tropical diseases.
Of these 20, two were targeted for eradication (dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) by 2015 and yaws by 2020), and four for elimination (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy and lymphatic filariasis by 2020).

Entropion

in-turnedinward rolling of lower eyelidsinward-folded eyelid
Untreated, repeated trachoma infections result in entropion (the inward turning of the eyelids), which may result in blindness due to damage to the cornea.
Repeated cases of trachoma infection may cause scarring of the inner eyelid, which may cause entropion.

Arlt's line

Linear scar present in the Sulcus subtarsalis is called Arlt's line (named after Carl Ferdinand von Arlt).
Arlt's line is a characteristic finding of trachoma, an infection of the eye caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

Trichiasis

in-growingingrown eyelashes
Trichiasis (misdirected eyelashes)
Repeated cases of trachoma infection may cause trichiasis.

Ellis Island

Fort GibsonEllisEllis Island Immigration Station
Immigrants who attempted to enter the U.S. through Ellis Island, New York had to be checked for trachoma.
They are best known for the role they played during the line inspection, in which they employed unusual techniques such as the use of the buttonhook to examine immigrants for signs of eye diseases (particularly, trachoma) and the use of a chalk mark code.

Ċensu Tabone

President Tabone
In 1948, Vincent Tabone (who was later to become the President of Malta) was entrusted with the supervision of a campaign in Malta to treat trachoma using sulfonamide tablets and drops.
In 1948, Tabone was entrusted with the supervision of a campaign to treat trachoma using sulfonamide tablets and drops.

Ophthalmology

ophthalmologistophthalmicoculist
By the late 1930s, a number of ophthalmologists reported success in treating trachoma with sulfonamide antibiotics.
Shinobu Ishihara (1879-1963) (Japan), in 1918, invented to Ishihara Color Vision Test, a common method for determining Color blindness. He also made major contributions to the study of Trachoma and Myopia.

Granulation tissue

scar tissuegranulationproud flesh
The infection causes a roughening of the inner surface of the eyelids.

Conjunctiva

conjunctivalconjuctivabulbar conjunctiva
The infection causes a roughening of the inner surface of the eyelids.

Cornea

cornealcorneal diseasecorneal diseases
This roughening can lead to pain in the eyes, breakdown of the outer surface or cornea of the eyes, and eventual blindness.

Azithromycin

Zithromax (azythromycin)
Treatment options include oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline.

Tetracycline

tetracyclintetracycline hydrochloridetetracyclins
Treatment options include oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline.

United States dollar

$US$USD
It results in US$8 billion of economic losses a year.

Conjunctivitis

pink eyepinkeyeblepharoconjunctivitis
The bacterium has an incubation period of 5 to 12 days, after which the affected individual experiences symptoms of conjunctivitis, or irritation similar to "pink eye".

Sulcus subtarsalis

Linear scar present in the Sulcus subtarsalis is called Arlt's line (named after Carl Ferdinand von Arlt).

Carl Ferdinand von Arlt

Carl Ferdinand Ritter von ArltFerdinand Arlt
Linear scar present in the Sulcus subtarsalis is called Arlt's line (named after Carl Ferdinand von Arlt).

Corneal ulcer

corneal ulcerationulcerationUlcerative Keratitis
The major complication or the most important one is corneal ulcer occurring due to rubbing by concentrations, or trichiasis with superimposed bacterial infection.

Mucopurulent discharge

dischargemucopurulent fluidvaginal discharge
Eye discharge

Secretion

secretedsecretesecretory pathway
Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, serotypes (serovars) A, B, and C. It is spread by direct contact with eye, nose, and throat secretions from affected individuals, or contact with fomites (inanimate objects that carry infectious agents), such as towels and/or washcloths, that have had similar contact with these secretions.

Fomite

fomitesobjectscontaminated objects
Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, serotypes (serovars) A, B, and C. It is spread by direct contact with eye, nose, and throat secretions from affected individuals, or contact with fomites (inanimate objects that carry infectious agents), such as towels and/or washcloths, that have had similar contact with these secretions.

Developed country

developed countriesdeveloped worlddeveloped
Although trachoma was eliminated from much of the developed world in the 20th century (Australia being a notable exception), this disease persists in many parts of the developing world, particularly in communities without adequate access to water and sanitation.

Developing country

developing countriesdeveloping worlddeveloping nations
Although trachoma was eliminated from much of the developed world in the 20th century (Australia being a notable exception), this disease persists in many parts of the developing world, particularly in communities without adequate access to water and sanitation.

Pfizer

Pfizer Inc.Warner-LambertPfizer Inc
Although it is expensive, it is generally used as part of the international donation program organized by Pfizer through the International Trachoma Initiative.