Title page of Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687)

Written work dealing formally and systematically with a subject; the word derives from the Latin tractatus, meaning treatise.

- Tractate

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Berakhot (tractate)

First tractate of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud.

The first page of tractate Berakhot

Berakhot is the only tractate in Seder Zeraim to have Gemara – rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah – in the Babylonian Talmud.


A masekhet (מַסֶּכֶת, Sephardic:, Ashkenazic: ; plural masekhtot ) is an organizational element of Talmudic literature that systematically examines a subject, referred to as a tractate in English.


Central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (halakha) and Jewish theology.

The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. The center column contains the Talmud text, beginning with a section of Mishnah. The Gemara begins 14 lines down with the abbreviation גמ (gimmel-mem) in larger type. Mishnah and Gemara sections alternate throughout the Talmud. The blocks of text on either side are the Rashi and Tosafot commentaries, printed in Rashi script. Other notes and cross references are in the margins.
An early printing of the Talmud (Ta'anit 9b); with commentary by Rashi
A page of a medieval Jerusalem Talmud manuscript, from the Cairo Geniza
A full set of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmudic saying on the Divine Presence
Koren Talmud Bavli
The Talmud on display in the Jewish Museum of Switzerland brings together parts from the first two Talmud prints by Daniel Bomberg and Ambrosius Froben.
Jewish Scene I
Jewish Scene II
A Controversy Whatsoever on Talmud<ref>See Schleicher's paintings at MutualArt.</ref>
At the Rabbi's
Jews studying Talmud, París, c. 1880–1905
Samuel Hirszenberg, Talmudic School, c. 1895–1908
Ephraim Moses Lilien, The Talmud Students, engraving, 1915
Maurycy Trębacz, The Dispute, c. 1920–1940
Solomon's Haggadoth, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah, Jerusalem, by Benno Elkan, 1956
Hilel's Teachings, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah
Jewish Mysticism: Jochanan ben Sakkai, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah
Yemenite Jews studying Torah in Sana&#039;a
Oz veHadar edition of the first page of the Babylonian Talmud, with elements numbered in a spiraling rainbowː (1) Joshua Boaz ben Simon Baruch's Mesorat haShas, (2) Joel Sirkis's Hagahot (3) Akiva Eiger's Gilyon haShas, (4) Completion of Solomon ben Isaac's commentary from the Soncino printing, (5) Nissim ben Jacob's commentary, (6) Hananel ben Hushiel's commentary, (7) a survey of the verses quoted, (8) Joshua Boaz ben Simon Baruch's Ein Mishpat/Ner Mitzvah, (9) the folio and page numbers, (10) the tractate title, (11) the chapter number, (12), the chapter heading, (13), Solomon ben Isaac's commentary, (14) the Tosafot, (15) the Mishnah, (16) the Gemara, (17) an editorial footnote.

The entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, and in the standard print, called the Vilna Shas, there are 2,711 double-sided folios.

Solar deity

Sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it.

A solar representation on an anthropomorphic stele dated from the time period between the Copper Age and the Early Bronze Age, discovered during an archaeological excavation on the Rocher des Doms, Avignon.
Ra, ancient Egyptian god of the sun and king of the gods
Ra in his barque
The Trundholm sun chariot
Goddess Amaterasu
The warrior goddess Sekhmet, shown with her sun disk and cobra crown.
The halo of Jesus, seen in many paintings, has similarities to a parhelion.
Mosaic of Christ as Sol or Apollo-Helios in Mausoleum M in the pre-4th-century necropolis beneath St. Peter's in the Vatican, which many interpret as representing Christ
Mosaic in the Beth Alpha synagogue, with the Sun represented in the center, surrounded by the twelve zodiac constellations and with the four seasons associated inaccurately with the constellations
The Hindu solar deity Surya being driven across the sky in his chariot
Isis, bearing her solar disk and horns nurses her infant, Horus
The winged sun was an ancient (3rd millennium BC) symbol of Horus, later identified with Ra
Taiyang Shen, the Chinese solar deity
Statue of the sun goddess Xihe charioteering the sun, being pulled by a dragon, in Hangzhou
Sun and Immortal Birds Gold Ornament by ancient Shu people. The center is a sun pattern with twelve points around which four birds fly in the same counterclockwise direction, Shang dynasty

The tractate De solstitia et aequinoctia conceptionis et nativitatis Domini nostri Iesu Christi et Iohannis Baptistae falsely attributed to John Chrysostom also argued that Jesus was conceived and crucified on the same day of the year and calculated this as 25 March.

Belshazzar's Feast (Rembrandt)

Major painting by Rembrandt now in the National Gallery, London.

Although there is no accepted explanation why the Babylonian priests were unable to decipher the writing, the point of this unconventional arrangement – reading the text in the painting in the conventional row-wise left-to-right order results in a garbled message – may be to suggest why the text proved incomprehensible to the Babylonian wise men; This explanation is in accordance with the opinion of the amora Shmuel, which is mentioned in the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin, 22a, among various dissenting views.


Traditional Jewish educational institution focused on the study of Rabbinic literature, primarily the Talmud and halacha (Jewish law), while Torah and Jewish philosophy are studied in parallel.

Mir Yeshiva (Jerusalem) – largest yeshiva in the world
A typical bet midrash – Yeshivas Ner Yisroel, Baltimore
Chavrusas in study – Yeshiva Gedola of Carteret
Morning seder, Or-Yisrael - a yeshiva founded by the Chazon Ish
Shiur in memory of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein at Yeshivat Har Etzion, a Hesder yeshiva
Rabbinical students in shiur, Jerusalem
Shiur klali, Slabodka Yeshiva
A depiction of Sura (from Beit Hatefutsot)
Volozhin yeshiva, “mother of the yeshivas”
Mir yeshiva
Ponevezh Yeshiva in Bnei Brak, Israel
Chachmei Lublin Yeshiva, now a national monument
The Breslov Yeshiva in Mea Shearim, Jerusalem.
Satmar Yeshiva in Brooklyn, New York.
Bobov Kollel in Jerusalem
Geula branch of Porat Yosef Yeshiva.
Kisse Rahamim yeshivah, Bnei Brak
JTS building in Manhattan
Reconstructionist Rabbinical College
Beth Medrash Govoha, Lakewood, New Jersey – largest yeshiva outside Israel.
Mercaz Harav, Jerusalem
Kollel Birkat Yitzhak, Moscow
Mir Yeshiva in Brooklyn
Mincha, Yeshiva Centre, Melbourne
Talmud Torah, Russia, 1937
Yeshiva High School, Tel Aviv, 1938
"Cheder"-class in Talmud, Tel Aviv, 1946.
Bet Midrash, Yeshivat Kerem B'Yavneh
Gemara, the first page of tractate Rosh Hashanah
A full set of the Babylonian Talmud
Chavrusas learning beki'ut, recording their summary of each sugya alongside its Mishnah
Set of Mishneh Torah
Cover of the first edition of Mesillat Yesharim.
Chumash with Mikraot Gedolot
Chumash with Yiddish translation

In the yeshiva system of Talmudic study, the undergraduate yeshivot focus on eight mesechtohs (tractates) that deal with civil jurisprudence (Nezikin); through them, the student can best master the proper technique of Talmudic analysis, and


Name of an individual or individuals mentioned in rabbinic literature, which historically has been assumed to be a reference to Jesus when used in the Talmud.

Isho or Eesho, the Aramaic name of Jesus

There are instances in the Talmud where the name "Yeshu" is written with gershayim, a punctuation mark used to indicate acronyms or abbreviations, however, this only occurs in a single tractate.

Abraham Isaac Kook

Orthodox rabbi, and the first Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine.

Abraham Isaac Kook in 1924
Proclamation by 80 rabbis in support of Kook after the printing of Kol Ha-Shofar in 1921
Kook with Mayor of New York John F. Hylan (1924)
Proclamation against Kook by rabbis Rosin, Brach and Greenwald (1926)
Students of Mercaz Harav Yeshiva
Rav Kook handwriting
Rav Isser Zalman Meltzer and Rav Moshe Mordechai Epstein writing in support and defense of Rav Kook
Rav Kook with Rav Moshe Mordechai Epstein and Rav Avraham Dov Ber Kahana
Funeral of Rav Kook, Jerusalem 1935
Rav Kook and Rav Sonnenfeld
Rav Kook and Rav Frank
Letter of Rav Boruch Ber Leibowitz About Rav Kook
Letter of Rav Chaim Ozer Grodzinsky About Rav Kook
Badatz Eidah Chareidis writing In support and Defense of Rav Kook
Main entrance of Beit HaRav (Rav Kook's House) in Jerusalem, Israel
Stone carving above door where Rav Kook lived when he was the Chief Rabbi in the 1920s and 30s.
Interior view of the part of Beit HaRav used for Yeshiva Mercaz HaRav as well as synagogue.
Rabbi Kook in 1920

During these years he wrote a number of works, mostly published posthumously, notably a lengthy commentary on the Aggadot of Tractates Berakhot and Shabbat, titled Eyn Ayah, and a brief book on morality and spirituality, titled Mussar Avicha.

Yeshivas Ner Yisroel

Haredi yeshiva (Jewish educational institution) in Pikesville (Baltimore County), Maryland.

Beis Medrash building
Beis Medrash building
A student studying inside the Bais Medrash

The yeshiva has a rotating cycle of nine different Talmudic tractates it covers in the course of nine years: Bava Kamma 1, Yevamos, Bava Basra, Gittin, Bava Kamma 2, Nedarim, Bava Metzia, Kiddushin, and Kesubos.

Apocalypse of Adam

Plaque of a local sugar refinery, 1901

The Apocalypse of Adam, discovered at Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt in 1945, is a Sethian work of Apocalyptic literature dating to the first-to-second centuries AD. This tractate is one of five contained within Codex V of the Nag Hammadi library.