Trade

tradingmercantileexchangecommercial developmentcommercialinternational commercebuyingcommercializecommercializedtraded
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.wikipedia
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Barter

barter economybarteringbarter trade
An early form of trade, barter, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services.
In trade, barter (derived from baretor ) is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.

Market (economics)

marketmarketsglobal market
A system or network that allows trade is called a market.
Markets facilitate trade and enable the distribution and resource allocation in a society.

Goods and services

goods or servicesgood or servicegoods, services,
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Taken together, it is the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services which underpins all economic activity and trade.

Retail

retailerretail storeshop
Retail trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a very fixed location (such as a department store, boutique or kiosk), online or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption or use by the purchaser.
Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products.

Financial transaction

transactiontransactionsfinancial transactions
Some trace the origins of commerce to the very start of transaction in prehistoric times.
A financial transaction is an agreement, or communication, carried out between a buyer and a seller to exchange an asset for payment.

Roman commerce

Roman merchantsRoman commercialbulk commodity trade
Roman commerce allowed its empire to flourish and endure.
Romans were businessmen and the longevity of their empire was due to their commercial trade.

Radhanite

Radhanite JewsJewishJewish Radhanite trade routes
For instance, Radhanites were a medieval guild or group (the precise meaning of the word is lost to history) of Jewish merchants who traded between the Christians in Europe and the Muslims of the Near East.
Jewish merchants operated in trade between the Christian and Islamic worlds during the early Middle Ages (approximately 500–1000).

Vikings

VikingNorseDanes
From the 8th to the 11th century, the Vikings and Varangians traded as they sailed from and to Scandinavia.
Vikings (wicing—"pirate", Danish and ; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries, raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, and explored westwards to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland.

Spice trade

spice routespicespepper trade
Vasco da Gama pioneered the European Spice trade in 1498 when he reached Calicut after sailing around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of the African continent.
refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.

Civilization

civilisationcivilizationshuman civilization
From the beginning of Greek civilization until the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, a financially lucrative trade brought valuable spice to Europe from the far east, including India and China.
Because a percentage of people in civilizations do not grow their own food, they must trade their goods and services for food in a market system, or receive food through the levy of tribute, redistributive taxation, tariffs or tithes from the food producing segment of the population.

Credit

consumer creditconsumer lendingconsumer loan
The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade.
In commercial trade, the term "trade credit" refers to the approval of delayed payment for purchased goods.

Economy

economiceconomiesnational economy
It criticised Mercantilism, and argued that economic specialisation could benefit nations just as much as firms.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
The Phoenicians were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea, and as far north as Britain for sources of tin to manufacture bronze.
This created the demand for rare tin metal and formed a trade network that linked the distant sources of tin to the markets of Bronze Age cultures.

Division of labour

division of laborspecializationspecialised
Trade exists due to specialization and the division of labor, a predominant form of economic activity in which individuals and groups concentrate on a small aspect of production, but use their output in trades for other products and needs.
The division of labour is the motive for trade and the source of economic interdependence.

Silk Road

silk routesilk tradeGreat Silk Road
The Sogdians dominated the East-West trade route known as the Silk Road after the 4th century CE up to the 8th century CE, with Suyab and Talas ranking among their main centers in the north.
Han general Ban Chao led an army of 70,000 mounted infantry and light cavalry troops in the 1st century CE to secure the trade routes, reaching far west to the Tarim basin.

International trade

foreign tradeglobal tradetrade
Smith said that he considered all rationalisations of import and export controls "dupery", which hurt the trading nation as a whole for the benefit of specific industries.
In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP).

Protectionism

protectionisttariff reformprotection
This was followed within a few years by the infant industry scenario developed by Mill promoting the theory that government had the duty to protect young industries, although only for a time necessary for them to develop full capacity.
However, they also reduce trade and adversely affect consumers in general (by raising the cost of imported goods), and harm the producers and workers in export sectors, both in the country implementing protectionist policies, and in the countries protected against.

Commodity

commoditiescommodity goodcommodity prices
Trade exists between regions because different regions may have a comparative advantage (perceived or real) in the production of some trade-able commodity—including production of natural resources scarce or limited elsewhere, or because different regions' sizes may encourage mass production.
Trade

Sales

salesmansaleseller
Retail trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a very fixed location (such as a department store, boutique or kiosk), online or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption or use by the purchaser.
Trade

Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
Trade exists due to specialization and the division of labor, a predominant form of economic activity in which individuals and groups concentrate on a small aspect of production, but use their output in trades for other products and needs.
It is an economic process that uses inputs to create a commodity or a service for exchange or direct use.

Globalization

globalisationglobalizedglobal
While international trade has been present throughout much of history (see Silk Road, Amber Road), its economic, social, and political importance have increased in recent centuries, mainly because of Industrialization, advanced transportation, globalization, multinational corporations, and outsourcing.
With the increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade, ideas, and culture.

Export-oriented industrialization

export-led growthexport-orientedexport expansion
Empirical evidence for the success of trade can be seen in the contrast between countries such as South Korea, which adopted a policy of export-oriented industrialization, and India, which historically had a more closed policy.
Export-oriented industrialization (EOI) sometimes called export substitution industrialization (ESI), export led industrialization (ELI) or export-led growth is a trade and economic policy aiming to speed up the industrialization process of a country by exporting goods for which the nation has a comparative advantage.

United States embargo against Cuba

embargoembargo against CubaCuban embargo
For example, the United States has had an embargo against Cuba for over 40 years.
, the embargo, which limits American businesses from conducting trade with Cuban interests, remains in effect and is the most enduring trade embargo in modern history.

Most favoured nation

most favored nationmost-favored-nationmost-favored nation
January 1, 1995 World Trade Organization was created to facilitate free trade, by mandating mutual most favoured nation trading status between all signatories.
After World War II, tariff and trade agreements were negotiated simultaneously by all interested parties through the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which ultimately resulted in the World Trade Organization in 1995.

Commercial law

commercialbusiness lawtrade law
Importing firms voluntarily adhere to fair trade standards or governments may enforce them through a combination of employment and commercial law.
Commercial law, also known as trade law, is the body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales.