Trade union

uniontrade unionistlabor uniontrade unionslabor unionsunionsorganized laborlabour unionlabortrade unionism
A trade union (or a labor union in the U.S.) is an association of workers forming a legal unit or legal personhood, usually called a "bargaining unit", which acts as bargaining agent and legal representative for a unit of employees in all matters of law or right arising from or in the administration of a collective agreement.wikipedia
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Labour law

labor lawemployment lawlabor laws
The trade union, through an elected leadership and bargaining committee, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers.
Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.

Collective bargaining

collectively bargaincollective bargaining agreementbargain collectively
Today, unions are usually formed for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, benefits, working conditions, or social and political status through collective bargaining by the increased bargaining power wielded by the banding of the workers.
The interests of the employees are commonly presented by representatives of a trade union to which the employees belong.

Craft unionism

craft unioncraft unionscraft
Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism), a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism).
Craft unionism refers to a model of trade unionism in which workers are organised based on the particular craft or trade in which they work.

Industrial unionism

industrial unionindustrial unionsrevolutionary industrial unionism
Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism), a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism).
Industrial unionism is a labour union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union—regardless of skill or trade—thus giving workers in one industry, or in all industries, more leverage in bargaining and in strike situations.

Apprenticeship

apprenticeapprenticedapprenticeships
Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, professionals, past workers, students, apprentices or the unemployed.
Although the formal boundaries and terminology of the apprentice/journeyman/master system often do not extend outside guilds and trade unions, the concept of on-the-job training leading to competence over a period of years is found in any field of skilled labor.

General union

general trade uniongeneralconsolidated Unions
Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism), a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism).
A general union is a trade union (called labor union in American English) which represents workers from all industries and companies, rather than just one organisation or a particular sector, as in a craft union or industrial union.

Guild

guildscraft guildtrade guild
Trade unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed, as the masters of the guilds employed workers (apprentices and journeymen) who were not allowed to organize.
They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society.

Benefit society

fraternal benefit societymutual aid societymutual aid societies
Recent historical research by Bob James in Craft, Trade or Mystery (2001) puts forward the view that trade unions are part of a broader movement of benefit societies, which includes medieval guilds, Freemasons, Oddfellows, friendly societies, and other fraternal organizations.
Examples of benefit societies include trade unions, friendly societies, credit unions, self-help groups, landsmanshaftn, immigrant hometown societies, fraternal organizations built upon the models of fraternal orders such as the Freemasons and the Oddfellows, coworking communities, and many others.

Combination Act 1799

Combination ActCombination ActsCombination Laws
In 1799, the Combination Act was passed, which banned trade unions and collective bargaining by British workers.
III, c. 81) titled An Act to prevent Unlawful Combinations of Workmen, prohibited trade unions and collective bargaining by British workers.

Employment

employeeemployeremployees
The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment".
Employees can organize into trade or labor unions, which represent the work force to collectively bargain with the management of organizations about working, and contractual conditions and services.

London Trades Council

London TC
The London Trades Council was founded in 1860, and the Sheffield Outrages spurred the establishment of the Trades Union Congress in 1868, the first long-lived national trade union center.
The London Trades Council was an early labour organisation, uniting London's trade unionists.

National trade union center

trade union federationunion federationnational trade union centre
The London Trades Council was founded in 1860, and the Sheffield Outrages spurred the establishment of the Trades Union Congress in 1868, the first long-lived national trade union center.
A national trade union center (or national center or central) is a federation or confederation of trade unions in a single country.

Trades Union Congress

TUCTrade Union CongressTrades Unions Congress
The London Trades Council was founded in 1860, and the Sheffield Outrages spurred the establishment of the Trades Union Congress in 1868, the first long-lived national trade union center.
The Trades Union Congress (TUC) is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in England and Wales, representing the majority of trade unions.

Free Association of German Trade Unions

FVdG
In Germany the Free Association of German Trade Unions was formed in 1897 after the conservative Anti-Socialist Laws of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck were repealed.
The Free Association of German Trade Unions (abbreviated FVdG; sometimes also translated as Free Association of German Unions or Free Alliance of German Trade Unions) was a trade union federation in Imperial and early Weimar Germany.

Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions

FOTLUFounding Convention of the AFLlabor union history
The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions began in 1881 as a federation of different unions that did not directly enrol workers.
The Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada (FOTLU) was a federation of labor unions created on November 15, 1881, at Turner Hall in Pittsburgh.

Legal person

legal personalitylegal entitybody corporate
A trade union (or a labor union in the U.S.) is an association of workers forming a legal unit or legal personhood, usually called a "bargaining unit", which acts as bargaining agent and legal representative for a unit of employees in all matters of law or right arising from or in the administration of a collective agreement.
In Italy trade unions have legal personality, as stated in Article 39, Paragraph 4 of the Constitution:

Sheffield Outrages

The London Trades Council was founded in 1860, and the Sheffield Outrages spurred the establishment of the Trades Union Congress in 1868, the first long-lived national trade union center.
The Sheffield Outrages were a series of explosions and murders by a small group of trade unionist militants carried out in Sheffield, England in the 1860s.

General Confederation of Labour (France)

Confédération générale du travailCGTGeneral Confederation of Labour
The Bourse du Travail was founded in 1887 and merged with the Fédération nationale des syndicats (National Federation of Trade Unions) in 1895 to form the General Confederation of Labour (France).
It is the first of the five major French confederations of trade unions.

Combinations of Workmen Act 1825

Combination Act 1825combination
Sympathy for the plight of the workers brought repeal of the acts in 1824, although the Combination Act 1825 severely restricted their activity.
The Combinations of Workmen Act 1825 (6 Geo 4 c 129) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, which prohibited trade unions from attempting to collectively bargain for better terms and conditions at work, and suppressed the right to strike.

Rank and file

rank-and-filerankandfilerank and file members
The trade union, through an elected leadership and bargaining committee, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers.

Tolpuddle Martyrs

George Lovelessgroup of agricultural workersJames Brine
The organization attracted a range of socialists from Owenites to revolutionaries and played a part in the protests after the Tolpuddle Martyrs' case, but soon collapsed.
The Tolpuddle Martyrs became a popular event of the early union and workers rights movements.

Labour movement

labor movementlaborlabour
Supporters of unions, such as the ACTU or Australian Labor Party (ALP), often credit trade unions with leading the labour movement in the early 20th century.
The standard unit of organisation is the trade union.

Trades hall

Auckland Trades Counciltrade union building
Melbourne Trades Hall was opened in 1859 with Trades and Labour Councils and Trades Halls opening in all cities and most regional towns in the next forty years.
A trades hall is a building where trade unions meet together, or work from cooperatively, as a local representative organisation, known as a labour council or trades hall council.

Labour council

Trades CouncilTrades and Labour CouncilLabor Council
Melbourne Trades Hall was opened in 1859 with Trades and Labour Councils and Trades Halls opening in all cities and most regional towns in the next forty years.
A labour council, trades council or industrial council is an association of labour unions or union branches in a given area.

White Australia policy

White AustraliaEuropean-Chinese relationsthe White Australia Policy
This was the foundation of the White Australia Policy.
Competition in the gold fields between British and Chinese miners, and labour-union opposition to the importation of Pacific Islanders (primarily South Sea Islanders) into the sugar plantations of Queensland, reinforced demands to eliminate or minimise low-wage immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands.