Traffic collision

car accidentcar crashtraffic accidentautomobile accidentroad accidentaccidentroad traffic accidentmotor vehicle accidentcrashmotor vehicle accidents
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.wikipedia
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Collision

collisionscollidecolliding
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.

Head-on collision

collided head-onhead-oncollide head-on
Types of collision include head-on, road departure, rear-end, side collisions, and rollovers.
A head-on collision is a traffic collision where the front ends of two vehicles such as cars, trains, ships or planes hit each other when traveling in opposite directions, as opposed to a side collision or rear-end collision.

Street racing

street racestreet racesstreet racer
A number of factors contribute to the risk of collisions, including vehicle design, speed of operation, road design, road environment, and driving skills, impairment due to alcohol or drugs, and behavior, notably distracted driving, speeding and street racing.
Opponents of street racing cite a lack of safety relative to sanctioned racing events, as well as legal repercussions arising from incidents, among street racing's drawbacks.

Side collision

t-bonedside impactT-bones
Types of collision include head-on, road departure, rear-end, side collisions, and rollovers.
Side collisions are vehicle crashes where the side of one or more vehicles is impacted.

Rollover

rolled overrollover accidentroll over
Types of collision include head-on, road departure, rear-end, side collisions, and rollovers.
A rollover is a type of vehicle crash in which a vehicle tips over onto its side or roof.

Speed limit

speedingspeed limitsvariable speed limit
This is because the term "accident" implies that there is no-one to blame, whereas most traffic collisions are the result of driving under the influence, excessive speed, distractions such as mobile phones or other risky behavior.
It is often done to attempt to improve road traffic safety and reduce the number of casualties from traffic collisions.

Road debris

debrisroad hazarddebris on the road
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.

Traffic

right-of-wayright of wayroad traffic
Accompanying changes to road designs have been wide-scale adoptions of rules of the road alongside law enforcement policies that included drink-driving laws, setting of speed limits, and speed enforcement systems such as speed cameras.
Events which disrupt the flow and may cause traffic to degenerate into a disorganized mess include road construction, collisions, and debris in the roadway.

Driving under the influence

DUIdriving while intoxicateddrink driving
A number of factors contribute to the risk of collisions, including vehicle design, speed of operation, road design, road environment, and driving skills, impairment due to alcohol or drugs, and behavior, notably distracted driving, speeding and street racing. This is because the term "accident" implies that there is no-one to blame, whereas most traffic collisions are the result of driving under the influence, excessive speed, distractions such as mobile phones or other risky behavior.
Driving under the influence is one of the largest risk factors that contribute to traffic collisions.

Psychological trauma

traumatraumatizedtraumatic
Following collisions, long-lasting psychological trauma may occur.
Catastrophic natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, large scale transportation accidents, house or domestic fire, motor vehicle accident, mass interpersonal violence like war, terrorist attacks or other mass victimization like sex trafficking, being taken as a hostage or being kidnapped can also cause psychological trauma.

Human factors and ergonomics

ergonomicshuman factorsergonomic
Collisions may be more likely to happen when hazardous road or traffic conditions are not obvious at a glance, or where the conditions are too complicated for the limited human machine to perceive and react in the time and distance available.
The emerging field of human factors in highway safety uses human factor principles to understand the actions and capabilities of road users – car and truck drivers, pedestrians, cyclists, etc. – and use this knowledge to design roads and streets to reduce traffic collisions.

EuroRAP

European Road Assessment ProgrammeEuropean Road Assessment Programme (EuroRAP)
In Europe, there are now EuroRAP tests that indicate how "self-explaining" and forgiving a particular road and its roadside would be in the event of a major incident.
In partnership with national motoring organisations and local authorities, EuroRAP assesses roads in Europe to show how well they protect life in the event of a crash.

Speed limit enforcement

speed trapspeed trapsspeeding
A number of factors contribute to the risk of collisions, including vehicle design, speed of operation, road design, road environment, and driving skills, impairment due to alcohol or drugs, and behavior, notably distracted driving, speeding and street racing.
However, a meta-analysis of studies finds automated ticketing machines that enforce speed limits may have reduced the number of traffic injuries and deaths.

Airbag

airbagsair bagside curtain airbag
In the early 1970s, British Leyland started an intensive programme of vehicle safety research, producing a number of prototype experimental safety vehicles demonstrating various innovations for occupant and pedestrian protection such as air bags, anti-lock brakes, impact-absorbing side-panels, front and rear head restraints, run-flat tires, smooth and deformable front-ends, impact-absorbing bumpers, and retractable headlamps.
An airbag is a vehicle occupant-restraint system using a bag designed to inflate extremely quickly, then quickly deflate during a collision.

Driving test

road testroad testsdriver
Some countries' driving tests have been expanded to test a new driver's behavior during emergencies, and their hazard perception.
Before they can use the vehicle for the test, they must show proof of liability insurance to the DMV for the particular vehicle to avoid liability from a collision that could occur during the test.

Seat belt

seatbeltseat beltssafety belt
Research has shown that, across all collision types, it is less likely that seat belts were worn in collisions involving death or serious injury, rather than light injury; wearing a seat belt reduces the risk of death by about 45 percent.
A seat belt reduces the likelihood of death or serious injury in a traffic collision by reducing the force of secondary impacts with interior strike hazards, by keeping occupants positioned correctly for maximum effectiveness of the airbag (if equipped) and by preventing occupants being ejected from the vehicle in a crash or if the vehicle rolls over.

Blunt trauma

blunt force traumabluntblunt-force trauma
A number of physical injuries can commonly result from the blunt force trauma caused by a collision, ranging from bruising and contusions to catastrophic physical injury (e.g., paralysis) or death.
The most common causes of blunt pelvic trauma are motor vehicle accidents and multiple-story falls, and thus pelvic injuries are commonly associated with additional traumatic injuries in other locations.

Mary Ward (scientist)

Mary WardMary King
Irish scientist Mary Ward died when she fell out of her cousins' steam car and was run over by it.
As the event occurred in 1869, she is the first person known to have been killed by a motor vehicle.

Vehicle insurance in the United States

most U.S. states requiremotor vehicle insuranceU.S. auto insurance
Because the financial liability that results from causing an accident is so high, most U.S. states require drivers to carry liability insurance to cover these potential costs.
Insurance companies provide a motor vehicle owner with an insurance card for the particular coverage term, which is to be kept in the vehicle in the event of a traffic collision as proof of insurance.

Accident blackspot

blackspotblack spotblackspots
For example, an accident blackspot may occur at a dangerous bend.
In road safety management, an accident blackspot or black spot is a place where road traffic accidents have historically been concentrated.

Worker road safety

Global road safety for workers
Road traffic crashes are a leading cause of occupational fatalities throughout the world, especially in developing countries.

List of traffic collisions

List of road accidentsAugust 25, 1972 crashautomobile accident
This list of traffic collisions records serious road crashes: those that have a large death toll, occurred in unusual circumstances, or have some other historical significance.

Accident management

Accident management is the centralized handling of a motorist’s claim following a road traffic collision or other damages or mishaps that happen to a vehicle while on or off road.

Self-driving car

autonomous cardriverless carself-driving cars
The world's first autonomous car incident resulting in the death of a pedestrian occurred on 18 March 2018 in Arizona.
Driving safety experts predict that once driverless technology has been fully developed, traffic collisions (and resulting deaths and injuries and costs), caused by human error, such as delayed reaction time, tailgating, rubbernecking, and other forms of distracted or aggressive driving should be substantially reduced.

J. J. Leeming

John Leeming
The British road engineer J. J. Leeming, compared the statistics for fatality rates in Great Britain, for transport-related incidents both before and after the introduction of the motor vehicle, for journeys, including those once by water that now are undertaken by motor vehicle: For the period 1863–1870 there were: 470 fatalities per million of population (76 on railways, 143 on roads, 251 on water); for the period 1891–1900 the corresponding figures were: 348 (63, 107, 178); for the period 1931–1938: 403 (22, 311, 70) and for the year 1963: 325 (10, 278, 37).
He forwarded controversial ideas for the causes of, and remedies for, road crashes, including the notion that drivers should not always be assumed to be at fault.