Transcendental idealism

transcendentaltranscendentTranscendental idealisttranscendental subjectTranscendentalistcritical transcendentalistdoctrine of intuitionepistemological idealismidealismKantian epistemic idealism
Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century.wikipedia
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Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century.
In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space, time, and causation are mere sensibilities; "things-in-themselves" exist, but their nature is unknowable.

Critique of Pure Reason

The Critique of Pure ReasonTranscendental AestheticEmpirical realism
Kant's doctrine is found throughout his Critique of Pure Reason (1781). Kant first describes it in his Critique of Pure Reason, and distinguished his view from contemporary views of realism and idealism, but philosophers do not agree how sharply Kant differs from each of these positions.
This is argued through the transcendental idealism of objects (as appearance) and their form of appearance.

Thing-in-itself

thing in itselfthings-in-themselvesDing an sich
Kant argues that the conscious subject cognizes objects not as they are in themselves, but only the way they appear to us under the conditions of our sensibility.
In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, Kant argued the sum of all objects, the empirical world, is a complex of appearances whose existence and connection occur only in our representations.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century.
Following the Abhidharma schools, Mahayana philosophers such as Nagarjuna and Vasubandhu developed the theories of shunyata (emptiness of all phenomena) and vijñapti-matra (appearance only), a form of phenomenology or transcendental idealism.

Edmund Husserl

HusserlHusserlianEdmund Huesserl
Transcendental idealism was also adopted as a label by the subsequent German philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer, and in the early 20th century by Edmund Husserl in the novel form of transcendental-phenomenological idealism.
Arguing that transcendental consciousness sets the limits of all possible knowledge, Husserl redefined phenomenology as a transcendental-idealist philosophy.

Idealism

idealistidealisticidealists
Kant first describes it in his Critique of Pure Reason, and distinguished his view from contemporary views of realism and idealism, but philosophers do not agree how sharply Kant differs from each of these positions.
Subjective idealists like George Berkeley are anti-realists in terms of a mind-independent world, whereas transcendental idealists like Immanuel Kant are strong skeptics of such a world, affirming epistemological and not metaphysical idealism.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

FichteJ. G. FichteJohann Fichte
Transcendental idealism was also adopted as a label by the subsequent German philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer, and in the early 20th century by Edmund Husserl in the novel form of transcendental-phenomenological idealism.
With extraordinary zeal, he expounded his system of "transcendental idealism".

Arthur Schopenhauer

SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's criticism of the proofs of the parallel postulateSchopenauer
Transcendental idealism was also adopted as a label by the subsequent German philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer, and in the early 20th century by Edmund Husserl in the novel form of transcendental-phenomenological idealism.
Proceeding from the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that has been described as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism, rejecting the contemporaneous post-Kantian philosophies of German idealism.

The World as Will and Representation

The World as Will and IdeaWorld as Will and RepresentationDie Welt als Wille und Vorstellung
Schopenhauer takes Kant's transcendental idealism as the starting point for his own philosophy, which he presents in The World as Will and Representation.
Schopenhauer asserted that his philosophy was the natural continuation of Kant's, and is regarded by some as remaining more faithful to Kant's metaphysical system of transcendental idealism, expounded in the Critique of Pure Reason (1781), than any of the other later German Idealists.

The Bounds of Sense

In The Bounds of Sense, P. F. Strawson suggests a reading of Kant's first Critique that, once accepted, forces rejection of most of the original arguments, including transcendental idealism.
The Bounds of Sense: An Essay on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason is a 1966 book about Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (1781) by the Oxford philosopher Peter Strawson, in which the author tries to separate what remains valuable in Kant's work from Kant's transcendental idealism, which he rejects.

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

SchellingFriedrich SchellingFriedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling
Transcendental idealism was also adopted as a label by the subsequent German philosophers Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer, and in the early 20th century by Edmund Husserl in the novel form of transcendental-phenomenological idealism.

A priori and a posteriori

a prioria posterioriA priori'' and ''a posteriori
That section is devoted to inquiry into the a priori conditions of human sensibility, i.e. the faculty by which humans intuit objects.
The claim is more formally known as Kant's transcendental deduction and it is the central argument of his major work, the Critique of Pure Reason.

Absolute idealism

neo-HegelianNeo-HegelianismCritical idealism
The absolute idealist position should be distinguished from the subjective idealism of Berkeley, the transcendental idealism of Kant, or the post-Kantian transcendental idealism (also known as critical idealism) of Fichte and of the early Schelling.

Pessimism

pessimisticpessimistphilosophical pessimism
On such a reading, Kant would himself commit the very fallacies he attributes to the transcendental realists.
Thinkers such as Julius Bahnsen, Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann, Philipp Mainländer and others cultivated the ever-increasing threat of pessimism by converting Schopenhauer's transcendental idealism into what Frederick C. Beiser calls transcendental realism.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
It is the dialectic character of knowing, rather than epistemological insufficiency, that Kant wanted most to assert.
The relevant theoretical concepts may purportedly be part of the structure of the human mind (as in Kant's theory of transcendental idealism), or they may be said to exist independently of the mind (as in Plato's theory of Forms).

Gilles Deleuze

DeleuzeDeleuze, GillesDeleuzian
In Kant's transcendental idealism, experience only makes sense when organized by forms of sensibility (namely, space and time) and intellectual categories (such as causality).

Henry Babcock Veatch

Henry B. VeatchHenry VeatchVeatch, Henry B.
This has been propounded by philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, Ralph Barton Perry, and Henry Babcock Veatch.
He opposed such modern and contemporary developments as the "transcendental turn" and the "linguistic turn."

Henry E. Allison

Henry AllisonAllison, Henry
In Kant's Transcendental Idealism, Henry E. Allison proposes a reading that opposes Strawson's interpretation.
The "two aspects' reading "interprets transcendental idealism as a fundamentally epistemological theory that distinguishes between two standpoints on the objects of experience: the human standpoint, from which objects are viewed relative to epistemic conditions that are peculiar to human cognitive faculties (namely, the a priori forms of our sensible intuition); and the standpoint of an intuitive intellect, from which the same objects could be known in themselves and independently of any epistemic conditions."

Noumenon

noumenanoumenalDing an sich
Kant's system requires the existence of noumena to prevent a rejection of external reality altogether, and it is this concept (senseless objects of which we can have no real understanding) to which Strawson objects in his book.

Subject (philosophy)

subjectsubjectivesubjectivity
Kant argues that the conscious subject cognizes objects not as they are in themselves, but only the way they appear to us under the conditions of our sensibility.

Object (philosophy)

objectobjectsthing
Kant argues that the conscious subject cognizes objects not as they are in themselves, but only the way they appear to us under the conditions of our sensibility.

Phenomenon

phenomenaphenomenalphysical phenomena
Kant argues that the conscious subject cognizes objects not as they are in themselves, but only the way they appear to us under the conditions of our sensibility.

Space

spatialphysical spacereal space
Space, time and causality—the necessary ways in which phenomena are related to one another—do not have an existence 'outside' of us, separate from phenomena.

Time

temporaldurationsequence of events
Space, time and causality—the necessary ways in which phenomena are related to one another—do not have an existence 'outside' of us, separate from phenomena.

Causality

causalcause and effectcausation
Space, time and causality—the necessary ways in which phenomena are related to one another—do not have an existence 'outside' of us, separate from phenomena.