Transcription (biology)

transcriptiontranscribedtranscriptionalgene transcriptiontranscripttranscriptstranscription start siteRNA synthesisDNA transcriptiontranscribe
Transcription is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression (gene is a short part of DNA that encodes for a protein), in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.wikipedia
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Gene expression

expressionexpressedexpress
Transcription is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression (gene is a short part of DNA that encodes for a protein), in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Transcription is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression (gene is a short part of DNA that encodes for a protein), in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription, where DNA bases are exchanged for their corresponding bases except in the case of thymine (T), which RNA substitutes for uracil (U).

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene.
During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA.

Messenger RNA

mRNAmRNAstranscripts
Transcription is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression (gene is a short part of DNA that encodes for a protein), in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase. If the gene encodes a protein, the transcription produces messenger RNA (mRNA); the mRNA, in turn, serves as a template for the protein's synthesis through translation.
The RNA polymerase enzyme transcribes genes into primary transcript mRNA (known as pre-mRNA) leading to processed, mature mRNA.

Transcription factor

transcription factorsgene transcription factortranscriptional factors
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a "promoter" to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "closed complex".
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

Viral replication

replicationreplicatevirus replication
This is because the positive-sense strand contains the information needed to translate the viral proteins for viral replication afterwards.
For others with negative stranded RNA and DNA, viruses are produced by transcription then translation.

Transcription bubble

A transcription bubble is a molecular structure formed during DNA transcription when a limited portion of the DNA double strand is unwound.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
Transcription is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression (gene is a short part of DNA that encodes for a protein), in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Synthesis of RNA is usually catalyzed by an enzyme—RNA polymerase—using DNA as a template, a process known as transcription.

Polyadenylation

polyadenylatedpoly(A) tailpolyA
Transcription termination in eukaryotes is less well understood than in bacteria, but involves cleavage of the new transcript followed by template-independent addition of adenines at its new 3' end, in a process called polyadenylation.
The process of polyadenylation begins as the transcription of a gene terminates.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
If the gene encodes a protein, the transcription produces messenger RNA (mRNA); the mRNA, in turn, serves as a template for the protein's synthesis through translation.
Genes encoded in DNA are first transcribed into pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) by proteins such as RNA polymerase.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

replicaseRNA replicaseRNA dependent RNA polymerase
This process is catalyzed by a viral RNA replicase.
This is in contrast to a typical DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which catalyzes the transcription of RNA from a DNA template.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Overall, RNA helps synthesize, regulate, and process proteins; it therefore plays a fundamental role in performing functions within a cell.
Protein synthesis generally consists of two major steps: transcription and translation.

Nucleotide

nucleotidesntdinucleotide
Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language.
In a double helix, the two strands are oriented in opposite directions, which permits base pairing and complementarity between the base-pairs, all which is essential for replicating or transcribing the encoded information found in DNA.

Three prime untranslated region

3' UTR3' untranslated region3'UTR
The regulatory sequence before ("upstream" from) the coding sequence is called the five prime untranslated region (5'UTR); the sequence after ("downstream" from) the coding sequence is called the three prime untranslated region (3'UTR).
An mRNA molecule is transcribed from the DNA sequence and is later translated into protein.

Ribosomal RNA

rRNAribosomalrRNAs
Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for non-coding RNA such as microRNA, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes.
Ribosomal RNA is non-coding and is never translated: rRNA is only transcribed from rDNA and then matured for use as a structural building block for ribosomes.

Coding strand

codingAnticoding strandcoding sequence
The non-template (sense) strand of DNA is called the coding strand, because its sequence is the same as the newly created RNA transcript (except for the substitution of uracil for thymine).
When referring to DNA transcription, the coding strand is the DNA strand whose base sequence corresponds to the base sequence of the RNA transcript produced (although with thymine replaced by uracil).

Promoter (genetics)

promoterpromoterspromoter region
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a "promoter" to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "closed complex".
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that leads to initiation of transcription of a particular gene.

Five prime untranslated region

5' UTR5' untranslated region5'UTR
The regulatory sequence before ("upstream" from) the coding sequence is called the five prime untranslated region (5'UTR); the sequence after ("downstream" from) the coding sequence is called the three prime untranslated region (3'UTR).
In addition, this region has been involved in transcription regulation, such as the sex-lethal gene in Drosophila.

Sigma factor

RpoHsigmaRNA polymerase sigma factor σ A
In bacteria, there is one general RNA transcription factor known as a sigma factor.
A sigma factor (σ factor) (specificity factor) is a protein needed for initiation of transcription in bacteria.

Base pair

base pairsbpMbp
Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language.
On the converse, regions of a genome that need to separate frequently — for example, the promoter regions for often-transcribed genes — are comparatively GC-poor (for example, see TATA box).

Archaea

archaeonarcheaarchaebacteria
In archaea and eukaryotes, RNA polymerase contains subunits homologous to each of the five RNA polymerase subunits in bacteria and also contains additional subunits.
Despite this morphological similarity to bacteria, archaea possess genes and several metabolic pathways that are more closely related to those of eukaryotes, notably for the enzymes involved in transcription and translation.

Nucleoside triphosphate

dNTPnucleotide triphosphateNTP
RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then selects a transcription start site in the transcription bubble, binds to an initiating NTP and an extending NTP (or a short RNA primer and an extending NTP) complementary to the transcription start site sequence, and catalyzes bond formation to yield an initial RNA product.
They are the building blocks of both DNA and RNA, which are chains of nucleotides made through the processes of DNA replication and transcription.

TATA-binding protein

TATA binding proteinTBPTATA-box binding protein
In archaea, there are three general transcription factors: TBP, TFB, and TFE.
This DNA sequence is found about 30 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site in some eukaryotic gene promoters.

Sense (molecular biology)

antisensepositive-sensenegative-sense
The antisense strand of DNA is read by RNA polymerase from the 3' end to the 5' end during transcription (3' → 5').
Since transcription results in an RNA product complementary to the DNA template strand, the mRNA is complementary to the DNA antisense strand.

Complementarity (molecular biology)

complementarycomplementaritycomplement
Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language.
Complementarity is also utilized in DNA transcription, which generates an RNA strand from a DNA template.