Transducer

transducerstransductiontransducedriveracoustic transducersangle transducerdetectiontransducedtransducestransductions
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.wikipedia
437 Related Articles

Signal

signalselectrical signalelectrical signals
Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another. An actuator is a device that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. It is controlled by a signal from a control system or manual control. It is operated by a source of energy, which can be mechanical force, electrical current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure, and converts that energy into motion. An actuator is the mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. The control system can be simple (a fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer driver, robot control system), a human, or any other input. A sensor is a transducer that receives and responds to a signal or stimulus from a physical system. It produces a signal, which represents information about the system, which is used by some type of telemetry, information or control system.
In human engineering, signals are typically provided by a sensor, and often the original form of a signal is converted to another form of energy using a transducer.

Loudspeaker

speakerloudspeakersspeakers
Bidirectional transducers convert physical phenomena to electrical signals and also convert electrical signals into physical phenomena. An example of an inherently bidirectional transducer is an antenna, which can convert radio waves (electromagnetic waves) into an electrical signal to be processed by a radio receiver, or translate an electrical signal from a transmitter into radio waves. Another example is voice coils, which are used in loudspeakers to translate an electrical audio signal into sound and in dynamic microphones to translate sound waves into an audio signal. Loudspeakers, earphones – converts electrical signals into sound (amplified signal → magnetic field → motion → air pressure)
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.

Audio signal

audioaudio channelchannel
Bidirectional transducers convert physical phenomena to electrical signals and also convert electrical signals into physical phenomena. An example of an inherently bidirectional transducer is an antenna, which can convert radio waves (electromagnetic waves) into an electrical signal to be processed by a radio receiver, or translate an electrical signal from a transmitter into radio waves. Another example is voice coils, which are used in loudspeakers to translate an electrical audio signal into sound and in dynamic microphones to translate sound waves into an audio signal.
Audio signals may be synthesized directly, or may originate at a transducer such as a microphone, musical instrument pickup, phonograph cartridge, or tape head.

Energy transformation

energy conversionconversionconverts
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.
There are many different machines and transducers that convert one energy form into another.

Actuator

actuatorsactuatedactuation
An actuator is a device that is responsible for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. It is controlled by a signal from a control system or manual control. It is operated by a source of energy, which can be mechanical force, electrical current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure, and converts that energy into motion. An actuator is the mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. The control system can be simple (a fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer driver, robot control system), a human, or any other input.
In electronic engineering, actuators are a subdivision of transducers.

Magnetic cartridge

moving coilneedlephono cartridge
magnetic cartridges – converts relative physical motion to and from electrical signals
A magnetic cartridge, more commonly called a phonograph cartridge or phono cartridge or (colloquially) a pickup, is an electromechanical transducer that is used to play records on a turntable.

Tape head

erase headheadmagnetic gap
Tape head, disk read-and-write heads – converts magnetic fields on a magnetic medium to and from electrical signals
A tape head is a type of transducer used in tape recorders to convert electrical signals to magnetic fluctuations and vice versa.

Energy

energiesenergy transfertotal energy
The process of converting one form of energy to another is known as transduction.
Items that transform between these forms are called transducers.

Load cell

Force transducersweight
Load cells – converts force to mV/V electrical signal using strain gauges
A load cell is a transducer that is used to create an electrical signal whose magnitude is directly proportional to the force being measured.

String potentiometer

string pots
String potentiometers
A string potentiometer is a transducer used to detect and measure linear position and velocity using a flexible cable and spring-loaded spool.

Headphones

headphoneearphoneearphones
Loudspeakers, earphones – converts electrical signals into sound (amplified signal → magnetic field → motion → air pressure)
They are electroacoustic transducers, which convert an electrical signal to a corresponding sound.

Potentiometer

rheostatpotentiometersvariable resistor
Potentiometers (when used for measuring position)
Potentiometers operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers, for example, in a joystick.

Sensor

sensorsdetectorsensing
A sensor is a transducer that receives and responds to a signal or stimulus from a physical system. It produces a signal, which represents information about the system, which is used by some type of telemetry, information or control system.
Consequently, a characteristic physical parameter varies and this variation is reported by means of an integrated transducer that generates the output signal.

Pressure sensor

pressure transducerpressure sensorspressure
Pressure sensors
A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed.

Microphone

microphonescondenser microphonedynamic microphone
Bidirectional transducers convert physical phenomena to electrical signals and also convert electrical signals into physical phenomena. An example of an inherently bidirectional transducer is an antenna, which can convert radio waves (electromagnetic waves) into an electrical signal to be processed by a radio receiver, or translate an electrical signal from a transmitter into radio waves. Another example is voice coils, which are used in loudspeakers to translate an electrical audio signal into sound and in dynamic microphones to translate sound waves into an audio signal.
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.

Pickup (music technology)

pickuppickupsguitar pickup
Pickup (music technology) – converts motion of metal strings into an electrical signal (magnetism → electrical signal)
A pickup is a transducer that captures or senses mechanical vibrations produced by musical instruments, particularly stringed instruments such as the electric guitar, and converts these to an electrical signal that is amplified using an instrument amplifier to produce musical sounds through a loudspeaker in a speaker enclosure.

Vibration-powered generator

vibration
Vibration powered generators
Vibration powered generators usually consist of a resonator which is used to amplify the vibration source, and a transducer mechanism which converts the energy from the vibrations into electrical energy.

Phonograph

turntablesgramophoneturntable
Gramophone pickups – (air pressure → motion → magnetic field → electrical signal)
In later electric phonographs (more often known since the 1940s as record players or, most recently, turntables ), the motions of the stylus are converted into an analogous electrical signal by a transducer, then converted back into sound by a loudspeaker.

Piezoelectricity

piezoelectricpiezoelectric effectpiezo-electric
Passive sensors, in contrast, generate an electric current in response to an external stimulus which serves as the output signal without the need of an additional energy source. Such examples are a photodiode, and a piezoelectric sensor, thermocouple.
The detector consisted of a transducer, made of thin quartz crystals carefully glued between two steel plates, and a hydrophone to detect the returned echo.

Ultrasonic transducer

ultrasonic sensorultrasonicultrasound transducer
Ultrasonic transceivers, transmitting ultrasound (transduced from electricity) as well as receiving it after sound reflection from target objects, availing for imaging of those objects.
In a similar way to radar and sonar, ultrasonic transducers are used in systems which evaluate targets by interpreting the reflected signals.

Ultrasound

ultrasonicultrasonicsultrasounds
Ultrasonic transceivers, transmitting ultrasound (transduced from electricity) as well as receiving it after sound reflection from target objects, availing for imaging of those objects.
The piezoelectric effect, discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880, was useful in transducers to generate and detect ultrasonic waves in air and water.

Disk read-and-write head

headheadsread/write head
Tape head, disk read-and-write heads – converts magnetic fields on a magnetic medium to and from electrical signals
Seagate introduced TMR heads featuring integrated microscopic heater coils to control the shape of the transducer region of the head during operation.

Hydrophone

hydrophoneshydroacoustichydroacoustics
Hydrophones – converts changes in water pressure into an electrical signal
A small single cylindrical ceramic transducer can achieve near perfect omnidirectional reception.

Horn analyzer

Horn analyzer
A horn analyzer is an test instrument dedicated to determine the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies of ultrasonic parts such as transducers, converters, horns/sonotrodes and acoustic stacks, which are used for ultrasonic welding, cutting, cleaning, medical and industrial applications.

Tactile sensor

tactile perceptiontactile sensingtactels
Tactile sensors
Transducer