Transference

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Transference (Übertragung) is a theoretical phenomenon characterized by unconscious redirection (projection) of the feelings a person has about their parents, as one example, on to the therapist.wikipedia
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Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianFreudian theory
Transference was first described by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, who considered it an important part of psychoanalytic treatment.
In founding psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process.

Psychoanalysis

psychoanalystpsychoanalyticpsychoanalytical
Transference was first described by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, who considered it an important part of psychoanalytic treatment.
The analyst then uses a variety of interpretation methods, such as dynamic interpretation (explaining how being too nice guards against guilt, e.g. – defense vs. affect); genetic interpretation (explaining how a past event is influencing the present); resistance interpretation (showing the patient how they are avoiding their problems); transference interpretation (showing the patient ways old conflicts arise in current relationships, including that with the analyst); or dream interpretation (obtaining the patient's thoughts about their dreams and connecting this with their current problems).

Negative transference

Rather than using the patient's transference strategically in therapy, the positive or negative transference is diplomatically pointed out and explained as an obstacle to cooperation and improvement.
Negative transference is the psychoanalytic term for the transference of negative and hostile feelings, rather than positive ones, onto a therapist (or other emotional object).

Countertransference

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Countertransference
In essence, this describes the transference of the treater to the patient, which is referred to as the "narrow perspective".

Narcissistic personality disorder

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This notwithstanding, Bundy's behavior could be considered pathological insofar as he may have had narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder.
Contemporary psychotherapy treatments include transference-focused therapy; metacognitive therapy; and schema therapy, to treat the client's particular subtype of NPD.

Free association (psychology)

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When Freud initially encountered transference in his therapy with patients, he thought he was encountering patient resistance, as he recognized the phenomenon when a patient refused to participate in a session of free association.

Psychodynamic psychotherapy

psychodynamic therapypsychodynamicbrief psychodynamic therapy
The focus in psychodynamic psychotherapy is, in large part, the therapist and patient recognizing the transference relationship and exploring the relationship's meaning.
Major techniques used by psychodynamic therapists include free association, dream interpretation, recognizing resistance and transference, working through painful memories and difficult issues, and building a strong therapeutic alliance.

Displacement (psychology)

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A term originating with Sigmund Freud, displacement operates in the mind unconsciously, its transference of emotions, ideas, or wishes being most often used to allay anxiety in the face of aggressive or sexual impulses.

Therapeutic relationship

therapeutic allianceWorking allianceAlliance
Not only does this help therapists regulate their emotions in the therapeutic relationship, but it also gives therapists valuable insight into what patients are attempting to elicit in them.
In psychoanalysis, the therapeutic relationship has been theorized to consist of three parts: the working alliance, transference/countertransference, and the real relationship.

Training analysis

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For the therapist, any signs of countertransference would suggest that his or her own personal training analysis needs to be continued to overcome these tendencies.
Early criticism for shortening the length of training analyses, and exploiting the transference to build up a personal following, blossomed in the demand by the IPA that his teaching "is to be regarded as null and void as far as any qualification to the title of psycho-analyst is concerned".

Individual psychology

AdlerianClassical Adlerian psychologyClassical Adlerian psychotherapy
Another contrasting perspective on transference and countertransference is offered in classical Adlerian psychotherapy.
Among the specific techniques used were paradoxes, humorous or historical examples, analysis of the self-protective role of symptoms, and reduction of transference by encouraging self-responsibility.

Working through

The necessity of working through the transference is stressed in almost all forms of psychodynamic therapy, from object relations theory, through the openings offered for working through by transference disruption in self psychology, to the repetitive exploration of the transference in group therapy.

Parallel process

The client's transference and the therapist's countertransference thus re-appear in the mirror of the therapist/supervisor relationship.

Acting in

Psychoanalysis also describes as 'acting in' the process whereby the analyst brings his or her personal countertransference into the analytic situation - as opposed to the converse, the acting out of the patient's transference.

Projective identification

carried feelingsprojection
As with transference and countertransference, projective identification can be a potential key to therapeutic understanding, especially where the therapist is able to tolerate and contain the unwanted, negative aspects of the patient's self over time.

Demand (psychoanalysis)

Demand
Lacan considered that the transference appears in the forms of demands from the patient – demands which he stressed the analyst must resist.

Parataxic distortion

Parataxic distortion serves as an immature cognitive defense mechanism against this psychological stress and is similar to Transference.

Transference neurosis

transference
He called these newer versions "transferences" and characterized them as the substitution of the analyst for a person from the patient's past.

Heinrich Racker

His most important work is a study of the psychoanalytic technique known as transference and countertransference, which was published for the first time in 1968.

Harold Searles

Harold F. SearlesSearles
Searles emphasized the importance of the therapist's acknowledging the core of truth around which a patient's transference materializes.

Carl Jung

JungCarl Gustav JungC. G. Jung
In The Psychology of the Transference, Carl Jung states that within the transference dyad both participants typically experience a variety of opposites, that in love and in psychological growth, the key to success is the ability to endure the tension of the opposites without abandoning the process, and that this tension allows one to grow and to transform.

Dyad (sociology)

dyaddyadicdyads
In The Psychology of the Transference, Carl Jung states that within the transference dyad both participants typically experience a variety of opposites, that in love and in psychological growth, the key to success is the ability to endure the tension of the opposites without abandoning the process, and that this tension allows one to grow and to transform.

Ted Bundy

Susan CurtisTheodore BundyBundy
It is believed in the instance of Ted Bundy, he repeatedly killed brunette women who reminded him of a previous girlfriend with whom he had become infatuated, but who had ended the relationship, leaving Bundy rejected and pathologically rageful (Bundy, however, denied this as a motivating factor in his crimes).

Antisocial personality disorder

sociopathsociopathicantisocial
This notwithstanding, Bundy's behavior could be considered pathological insofar as he may have had narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder.

Parentification

Transference is often manifested as an erotic attraction towards a therapist, but can be seen in many other forms such as rage, hatred, mistrust, parentification, extreme dependence, or even placing the therapist in a god-like or guru status.