Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at the right of the picture. 1909

Phenomenon within psychotherapy in which the feelings a person had about one thing are unconsciously redirected or transferred to the present situation.

- Transference

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Set of theories and therapeutic techniques that deal in part with the unconscious mind, and which together form a method of treatment for mental disorders.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

7) The "centerpiece of the psychoanalytic process" is the transference, whereby patients relive their infantile conflicts by projecting onto the analyst feelings of love, dependence and anger.



Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at the right of the picture. 1909

In essence, this describes the transference of the treater to the patient, which is referred to as the "narrow perspective".

Therapeutic relationship

The therapeutic relationship refers to the relationship between a healthcare professional and a client or patient.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

In psychoanalysis the therapeutic relationship has been theorized to consist of three parts: the working alliance, transference/countertransference, and the real relationship.

Free association (psychology)

Expression of the content of consciousness without censorship as an aid in gaining access to unconscious processes.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Transference - unwittingly transferring feelings about one person to become applied to another person;


Use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems.

Freud, seated left of picture with Jung seated at the right of the picture. 1909
Group therapy, Ukraine

He went on to develop techniques such as free association, dream interpretation, transference and analysis of the id, ego and superego.

Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for evaluating and treating pathologies in the psyche through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

Freud c. undefined 1921
Freud's birthplace, a rented room in a locksmith's house, Freiberg, Austrian Empire (later Příbor, Czech Republic)
Freud (aged 16) and his mother, Amalia, in 1872
Freud's home at Berggasse 19, Vienna
André Brouillet's A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière (1887) depicting a Charcot demonstration. Freud had a lithograph of this painting placed over the couch in his consulting rooms.
Approach to Freud's consulting rooms at Berggasse 19
At Clark University, 1909. Front row: Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham Brill, Ernest Jones, Sándor Ferenczi
Carl Jung in 1910
The Committee in 1922 (from left to right): Otto Rank, Sigmund Freud, Karl Abraham, Max Eitingon, Sándor Ferenczi, Ernest Jones, and Hanns Sachs
Freud's last home, now dedicated to his life and work as the Freud Museum, 20 Maresfield Gardens, Hampstead, London NW3, England.
Freud's ashes in the "Freud Corner" at the Golders Green Crematorium
The iceberg metaphor is often used to explain the psyche's parts in relation to one another
The 1971 Sigmund Freud memorial in Hampstead, North London, by Oscar Nemon, is located near to where Sigmund and Anna Freud lived, now the Freud Museum. The building behind the statue is the Tavistock Clinic, a major psychological health care institution.
Karl Popper argued that Freud's psychoanalytic theories were unfalsifiable.
Herbert Marcuse saw similarities between psychoanalysis and Marxism.
Betty Friedan criticizes Freud's view of women in her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique.

In founding psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process.

Psychodynamic psychotherapy

Form of psychoanalysis and/or depth psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension, which is inner conflict within the mind that was created in a situation of extreme stress or emotional hardship, often in the state of distress.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Additionally, there may be transference of views, feelings, and/or wishes of the patient onto the analyst, often the therapist, that were initially directed towards other impactful individuals in the patient's life.

Individual psychology

Psychological method or science founded by the Viennese psychiatrist Alfred Adler.

Alfred Alder

Among the specific techniques used were paradoxes, humorous or historical examples, analysis of the self-protective role of symptoms, and reduction of transference by encouraging self-responsibility.

Training analysis

Psychoanalysis undergone by a candidate as a part of her/his training to be a psychoanalyst; the (senior) psychoanalyst who performs such an analysis is called a training analyst.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Early criticism for shortening the length of training analyses, and exploiting the transference to build up a personal following, blossomed in the demand by the IPA that his teaching "is to be regarded as null and void as far as any qualification to the title of psycho-analyst is concerned".

Harold Searles

One of the pioneers of psychiatric medicine specializing in psychoanalytic treatments of schizophrenia.

The word psyche comes from the ancient Greek for 'soul' or 'butterfly'. The fluttering insect appears in the coat of arms of Britain's Royal College of Psychiatrists.

Searles emphasized the importance of the therapist's acknowledging the core of truth around which a patient's transference materializes.