Transient ischemic attack

transient ischaemic attacktransient ischemic attacksmini-strokemini strokeTIATIAsischemic attack, transientreversible ischemic neurologic deficitArterial spasm (TIA)mild stroke
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).wikipedia
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Stroke

strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
TIAs have the same underlying mechanism as ischemic strokes.
If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke.

Silent stroke

silently suffers a stroke
In silent stroke, also known as silent cerebral infarct (SCI), there is permanent infarction present on imaging, but there are no immediately observable symptoms.
Despite not causing identifiable symptoms a silent stroke still causes damage to the brain, and places the patient at increased risk for both transient ischemic attack and major stroke in the future.

Ischemia

ischemicischaemiaischaemic
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).
A brief episode of ischemia affecting the brain is called a transient ischemic attack (TIA), often called a mini-stroke.

Amaurosis fugax

Temporary vision losstransient visual loss in one eye
Amaurosis fugax (painless, temporary loss of vision)
Atherosclerotic carotid artery: Amaurosis fugax may present as a type of transient ischemic attack (TIA), during which an embolus unilaterally obstructs the lumen of the retinal artery or ophthalmic artery, causing a decrease in blood flow to the ipsilateral retina. The most common source of these athero-emboli is an atherosclerotic carotid artery. However, a severely atherosclerotic carotid artery may also cause amaurosis fugax due to its stenosis of blood flow, leading to ischemia when the retina is exposed to bright light. "Unilateral visual loss in bright light may indicate ipsilateral carotid artery occlusive disease and may reflect the inability of borderline circulation to sustain the increased retinal metabolic activity associated with exposure to bright light."

Atrial fibrillation

paroxysmal atrial fibrillationatrial fibrilationatrial arrhythmia
The most common underlying pathology leading to TIA and stroke is a cardiac condition called atrial fibrillation, where poor coordination of contraction leads to a formation of a clot in the atrial chamber that can become dislodged and travel to a cerebral artery.
The abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) is sometimes only identified with the onset of a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA).

Carotid artery stenosis

carotid stenosiscarotid artery diseaseCarotid artery
Also, carotid stenosis secondary to atherosclerosis narrowing the diameter of the lumen and thus limiting blood flow is another common cause of TIA.
This ischemia can either be temporary, yielding a transient ischemic attack, or permanent resulting in a thromboembolic stroke.

Carotid endarterectomy

carotid endarterectomiesendarterectomy, carotidsurgery to open up the arteries to the brain
Vessels in the head and neck may also be evaluated to look for atherosclerotic lesions that may benefit from interventions, such as carotid endarterectomy.
Sometimes the stenosis causes temporary symptoms first, known as TIAs, where temporary ischemia occurs in the brain, spinal cord, or retina without causing an infarction.

Vertigo

dizzinessvertiginoussensation of the world spinning
Problems with balance and spatial orientation
Presentation may more often involve headache or neck pain, additionally, those who have had multiple episodes of dizziness in the months leading up to presentation are suggestive of stroke with prodromal TIAs.

Stenosis

stricturestricturesnarrowing
There are three major mechanisms of ischemia in the brain: embolism traveling to the brain, in situ thrombotic occlusion in the intracranial vessels supplying the parenchyma of the brain, and stenosis of vessels leading to poor perfusion secondary to flow-limiting diameter.
Carotid artery stenosis which predispose to (strokes and transient ischaemic episodes)

ABCD² score

The risk of a stroke occurring after a TIA can be predicted using the ABCD² score.
The ABCD 2 score is a clinical prediction rule used to determine the risk for stroke in the days following a transient ischemic attack (TIA, a condition in which temporary brain dysfunction results from oxygen shortage in the brain).

Carotid stenting

Carotid artery stentingcarotid stent
Carotid artery stenting is a less invasive alternative to carotid endarterectomy for patients with extra-cranial carotid artery stenosis.
Carotid artery stenosis can present with no symptoms or with symptoms such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or strokes.

Brain ischemia

cerebral ischemiacerebral ischaemiaischemic stroke
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).

Spinal cord

medulla spinalisspinethoracic segment
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).

Ocular ischemic syndrome

retinal artery occlusionretinal ischemiacentral artery thrombosis
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).

Cerebral circulation

cerebral blood flowblood flow to the braincerebral vasculature
Both are caused by a disruption in blood flow to the brain, or cerebral blood flow (CBF).

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
The American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) now define TIA as a brief episode of neurological dysfunction with a vascular cause, with clinical symptoms typically lasting less than one hour, and without evidence of infarction on imaging.

Infarction

infarctinfarctedinfarcts
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction). The American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) now define TIA as a brief episode of neurological dysfunction with a vascular cause, with clinical symptoms typically lasting less than one hour, and without evidence of infarction on imaging.

Medical imaging

imagingdiagnostic imagingdiagnostic radiology
The American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) now define TIA as a brief episode of neurological dysfunction with a vascular cause, with clinical symptoms typically lasting less than one hour, and without evidence of infarction on imaging.

Dysarthria

slurred speechdifficulty speakingdysarthric
A TIA may cause sudden dimming or loss of vision, difficulty speaking or understanding language, slurred speech, and confusion.

Altered level of consciousness

level of consciousnessaltered mental statusdecreased level of consciousness
A TIA may cause sudden dimming or loss of vision, difficulty speaking or understanding language, slurred speech, and confusion.

Central nervous system

CNScentralcentral nervous system (CNS)
Both result from a disruption in blood flow to the central nervous system.

Focal neurologic signs

focal neurological deficitfocal neurologic deficitsfocal
In general, focal deficits make TIA more likely, but the absence of focal findings do not exclude the diagnosis and further evaluation may be warranted if clinical suspicion for TIA is high (see “Diagnosis” section below).

Diplopia

double visionMonocular diplopiadouble-vision
Diplopia (double vision)

Cerebral arteries

cerebral arteryarteriescerebral
The most common underlying pathology leading to TIA and stroke is a cardiac condition called atrial fibrillation, where poor coordination of contraction leads to a formation of a clot in the atrial chamber that can become dislodged and travel to a cerebral artery.