Translation (biology)

translationtranslatedprotein translationtranslationaltranslatetranslatingmRNA translationprotein synthesistranslationallypeptide chain
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.wikipedia
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RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes.

Transcription (biology)

transcriptiontranscribedtranscriptional
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
If the gene encodes a protein, the transcription produces messenger RNA (mRNA); the mRNA, in turn, serves as a template for the protein's synthesis through translation.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Under the genetic code, these RNA strands specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation.

Gene expression

expressionexpressedexpress
The entire process is called gene expression.
Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein.

Protein folding

foldfoldingfolded
The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary tRNA anticodon sequences to mRNA codons.
Each protein exists as an unfolded polypeptide or random coil when translated from a sequence of mRNA to a linear chain of amino acids.

Ribosome

ribosomesribosomal70S
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus. The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary tRNA anticodon sequences to mRNA codons. In prokaryotes (bacteria), translation occurs in the cytosol, where the medium and small subunits of the ribosome bind to the tRNA.
Ribosomes comprise a complex macromolecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

Messenger RNA

mRNAmRNAstranscripts
In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded in the ribosome decoding center to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide.
This mature mRNA is then translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein, as summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology.

Molecular biology

molecular biologistmolecularmolecular microbiology
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary tRNA anticodon sequences to mRNA codons.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are used to add amino acids during protein translation.

Protein targeting

translocationtraffickingprotein sorting
In eukaryotes, translation occurs in the cytosol or across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a process called co-translational translocation.
The translation of mRNA into protein by a ribosome takes place within the cytosol.

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
This messenger RNA molecule is then used to produce a corresponding amino acid sequence through a process called translation.

Anisomycin

These include clindamycin, anisomycin, cycloheximide, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, and puromycin.
Anisomycin, also known as flagecidin, is an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseolus which inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis.

Endoplasmic reticulum

rough endoplasmic reticulumERsmooth endoplasmic reticulum
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus. In eukaryotes, translation occurs in the cytosol or across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a process called co-translational translocation.
This special complex forms when a free ribosome begins translating the mRNA of a protein destined for the secretory pathway.

Genetic code

codoncodonsencoded
The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary tRNA anticodon sequences to mRNA codons.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

Puromycin

These include clindamycin, anisomycin, cycloheximide, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, and puromycin.
Puromycin is an antibiotic protein synthesis inhibitor which causes premature chain termination during translation.

Cycloheximide

actidione
These include clindamycin, anisomycin, cycloheximide, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, and puromycin.
Cycloheximide exerts its effects by interfering with the translocation step in protein synthesis (movement of two tRNA molecules and mRNA in relation to the ribosome), thus blocking eukaryotic translational elongation.

Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclear
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
The nucleus provides a site for genetic transcription that is segregated from the location of translation in the cytoplasm, allowing levels of gene regulation that are not available to prokaryotes.

Ribosomal RNA

rRNAribosomalrRNAs
The ribosome is a multi-subunit structure containing rRNA and proteins.
They serve critical roles in forming the catalytic sites of translation of mRNA.

EF-Tu

EF-Tu proteinElongation Factor Thermo-Unstableelongation factor Tu
In prokaryotes, this aminoacyl-tRNA is carried to the ribosome by EF-Tu, where mRNA codons are matched through complementary base pairing to specific tRNA anticodons.
As a reflection of its crucial role in translation, EF-Tu is one of the most abundant and highly conserved proteins in prokaryotes.

Transfer RNA

tRNAanticodontRNAs
The polypeptide later folds into an active protein and performs its functions in the cell. The ribosome facilitates decoding by inducing the binding of complementary tRNA anticodon sequences to mRNA codons. In prokaryotes, this aminoacyl-tRNA is carried to the ribosome by EF-Tu, where mRNA codons are matched through complementary base pairing to specific tRNA anticodons. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (enzymes) catalyze the bonding between specific tRNAs and the amino acids that their anticodon sequences call for.
As such, tRNAs are a necessary component of translation, the biological synthesis of new proteins in accordance with the genetic code.

Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetaseaminoacyl-tRNA synthetasesaminoacyl tRNA synthetases
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (enzymes) catalyze the bonding between specific tRNAs and the amino acids that their anticodon sequences call for.
Aminoacyl tRNA therefore plays an important role in RNA translation, the expression of genes to create proteins.

EF-G

peptide elongation factor gelongation factor G
After the new amino acid is added to the chain, and after the mRNA is released out of the nucleus and into the ribosome's core, the energy provided by the hydrolysis of a ATP bound to the translocase EF-G (in prokaryotes) and eEF-2 (in eukaryotes) moves the ribosome down one codon towards the 3' end.
EF-G (elongation factor G, historically known as translocase) is a prokaryotic elongation factor involved in protein translation.

Release factor

releasing factor
Instead, the stop codon induces the binding of a release factor protein (RF1 & RF2) that prompts the disassembly of the entire ribosome/mRNA complex by the hydrolysis of the polypeptide chain from the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome.
A release factor is a protein that allows for the termination of translation by recognizing the termination codon or stop codon in an mRNA sequence.

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded in the ribosome decoding center to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide. Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (enzymes) catalyze the bonding between specific tRNAs and the amino acids that their anticodon sequences call for.
While L -amino acids represent all of the amino acids found in proteins during translation in the ribosome, D -amino acids are found in some proteins produced by enzyme posttranslational modifications after translation and translocation to the endoplasmic reticulum, as in exotic sea-dwelling organisms such as cone snails.

Prokaryote

prokaryoticprokaryotesprokaryotic cells
After the new amino acid is added to the chain, and after the mRNA is released out of the nucleus and into the ribosome's core, the energy provided by the hydrolysis of a ATP bound to the translocase EF-G (in prokaryotes) and eEF-2 (in eukaryotes) moves the ribosome down one codon towards the 3' end. In prokaryotes (bacteria), translation occurs in the cytosol, where the medium and small subunits of the ribosome bind to the tRNA.
Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes contain large RNA/protein structures called ribosomes, which produce protein, but the ribosomes of prokaryotes are smaller than those of eukaryotes.