Transmission (medicine)

transmissiondisease transmissiontransmissible diseasetransmittedairborne transmissionsexual transmissionspreadtransmissible diseasesautochthonousHorizontal disease transmission
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.wikipedia
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Fecal–oral route

fecal-oral routefecal-oralfaecal-oral route
The fecal–oral route (also called the oral–fecal route or orofecal route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease wherein pathogens in fecal particles pass from one person to the mouth of another person.

Sanitation

sanitaryunsanitarypublic sanitation
Main causes of fecal–oral disease transmission include lack of adequate sanitation and poor hygiene practices - which can take various forms.
Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease, especially through the fecal–oral route.

Epidemiology

epidemiologistepidemiologicalepidemiologists
The route of transmission is important to epidemiologists because patterns of contact vary between different populations and different groups of populations depending on socio-economic, cultural and other features.
Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.

Polio

poliomyelitisinfantile paralysisparalytic polio
For example, if it is noted that polio is more common in cities in underdeveloped countries, without a clean water supply, than in cities with a good plumbing system, we might advance the theory that polio is spread by the fecal-oral route.
The disease is transmitted primarily via the fecal-oral route, by ingesting contaminated food or water.

Cholera

Asiatic choleracholera epidemicA cholera epidemic breaks out
For example, low personal and food hygiene due to the lack of a clean water supply may result in increased transmission of diseases by the fecal-oral route, such as cholera.
Transmission is usually through the fecal-oral route of contaminated food or water caused by poor sanitation.

Chickenpox

chicken poxvaricellaCongenital varicella syndrome
Diseases that are commonly spread by coughing or sneezing include bacterial meningitis, chickenpox, common cold, influenza, mumps, strep throat, tuberculosis, measles, rubella, whooping cough, SARS and leprosy.
Varicella infection in pregnant women could lead to spread via the placenta and infection of the fetus.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome

SARSSARS epidemicSevere acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Diseases that are commonly spread by coughing or sneezing include bacterial meningitis, chickenpox, common cold, influenza, mumps, strep throat, tuberculosis, measles, rubella, whooping cough, SARS and leprosy.
The primary route of transmission for SARS is contact of the mucous membranes with respiratory droplets or fomites.

Hygiene

hygienistpersonal hygienehygienic
Main causes of fecal–oral disease transmission include lack of adequate sanitation and poor hygiene practices - which can take various forms.
Culinary hygiene pertains to the practices related to food management and cooking to prevent food contamination, prevent food poisoning and minimize the transmission of disease to other foods, humans or animals.

Parasitism

parasiteparasiticparasites
Indirect transmission could involve zoonoses or, more typically, larger pathogens like macroparasites with more complex life cycles.
Parasites increase their own fitness by exploiting hosts for resources necessary for their survival, in particular by feeding on them and by using intermediate (secondary) hosts to assist in their transmission from one definitive (primary) host to another.

Sexually transmitted infection

venereal diseasesexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted diseases
Sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and hepatitis B are thought to not normally be transmitted through mouth-to-mouth contact, although it is possible to transmit some STDs between the genitals and the mouth, during oral sex.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.

Hepatitis B

Bchronic hepatitis Bhepatitis B virus
Some diseases transmissible by the sexual route include HIV/AIDS, chlamydia, genital warts, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, syphilis, herpes, and trichomoniasis.
In areas where the disease is rare, intravenous drug use and sexual intercourse are the most frequent routes of infection.

Vertically transmitted infection

vertical transmissionmother-to-child transmissionvertically
or by vertical disease transmission, passing the agent causing the disease from parent to offspring, such as in prenatal or perinatal transmission.
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that use mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection.

Sexual intercourse

sexcopulationintercourse
This refers to any disease that can be caught during sexual activity with another person, including vaginal or anal sex or (less commonly) through oral sex (see below).
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are bacteria, viruses or parasites that are spread by sexual contact, especially vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse, or unprotected sex.

Disease surveillance

surveillancecheckingdisease surveillance tool
Tracking the transmission of infectious diseases is called disease surveillance.
Formal reporting of notifiable infectious diseases is a requirement placed upon health care providers by many regional and national governments, and upon national governments by the World Health Organization to monitor spread as a result of the transmission of infectious agents.

Lyme disease

borreliosisLyme borreliosisLyme
Biological vectors are often responsible for serious blood-borne diseases, such as malaria, viral encephalitis, Chagas disease, Lyme disease and African sleeping sickness.
Lyme disease is classified as a zoonosis, as it is transmitted to humans from a natural reservoir among small mammals and birds by ticks that feed on both sets of hosts.

Transmission risks and rates

Transmission ratemake contactrate of transmission
Whether or not a particular kind of contact will be effective depends on the infectious agent and its route of transmission.

Infection control

infection preventionInfection prevention and controlinfection-control
For diseases transmitted within an institution, such as a hospital, prison, nursing home, boarding school, orphanage, refugee camp etc., infection control specialists are employed, who will review medical records to analyze transmission as part of a hospital epidemiology program, for example.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.

Public health

Community MedicinehealthSchool of Public Health
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.

Biology

biologicalBiological Sciencesbiologist
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.

Host (biology)

hostintermediate hosthosts
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected. Transmission can also be indirect, via another organism, either a vector (e.g. a mosquito or fly) or an intermediate host (e.g. tapeworm in pigs can be transmitted to humans who ingest improperly cooked pork).

Microorganism

microorganismsmicrobemicrobes

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
Transmission can also be indirect, via another organism, either a vector (e.g. a mosquito or fly) or an intermediate host (e.g. tapeworm in pigs can be transmitted to humans who ingest improperly cooked pork).

Vector (epidemiology)

vectorvectorsdisease vector
Transmission can also be indirect, via another organism, either a vector (e.g. a mosquito or fly) or an intermediate host (e.g. tapeworm in pigs can be transmitted to humans who ingest improperly cooked pork).