Moldavian ASSR (orange) and Romania, 1924–1940
Igor Smirnov, first president of Transnistria from 1991 to 2011
Soviet symbols are still used in Transnistria.
Igor Smirnov with Vladimir Voronin and Dmitry Medvedev in Barvikha, 18 March 2009
General map of Transnistria
Dniester River in Bender (Tighina)
Districts of Transnistria
License plate of Transnistria
Transnistrian territory in relation to the rest of Moldova, landlocked along the border with Ukraine. Note that this map treats lands at the west bank of the Dniester (such as Bender) as undisputed Transnistrian territory.
Political map of Transnistria with the differences between the de facto Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the de jure Autonomous Dniestrian Territory
Former President of Transnistria Yevgeny Shevchuk and Sabbas, diocesan bishop of the Moldovan Orthodox Church
A Transnistrian passport
The Transnistrian parliament building in Tiraspol, fronted by a statue of Vladimir Lenin
Tiraspol City Council
World War II-era Soviet T-34 in Tiraspol
Russian peace-keeping soldiers at the border between Transnistria and Moldova at Dubăsari
Transnistrian soldiers in 2013
Demographic evolution in Transnistrian regions and the city of Tiraspol. Purple: Moldovans (Romanians), green: Ukrainians, blue: Russians.
Noul Neamț Monastery
Transnistria's central bank, the Transnistrian Republican Bank
Tiraspol, capital of Transnistria
Welcome (Bine ați venit!) sign in Moldovan Cyrillic in Tiraspol. The Cyrillic alphabet was replaced by the Latin alphabet in 1989 in Moldova, but remains in use in Transnistria.

Unrecognised breakaway state that is internationally recognised as part of Moldova.

- Transnistria

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Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

Resolution of the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee on creation of the republic
The 1922 map of Odessa and Mykolaiv Governorates before the establishment of the Moldavian ASSR
The map of the Moldavian ASSR
Romania, and east of it, the Moldavian ASSR in the USSR
Ethnic composition of MASSR, 1926
The weekly newspaper Plugarul Roşu [The Red Ploughman] of the Moldavian ASSR began appearing on July 1, 1924

The Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Republica Autonomă Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, Moldovan Cyrillic: Република Аутономэ Советикэ Cочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молдавська Автономна Радянська Соціалістична Республіка), shortened to Moldavian ASSR, was an autonomous republic of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing the modern territory of Transnistria (today de jure in Moldova, but de facto functioning as an independent state; see Transnistria conflict) as well as much of present-day Balta region of Ukraine.

Transnistria War

Military situation in Transnistria as of 20 June 2022
PMR trucks on the bridge between Tiraspol and Bender (Tighina)
Building still showing damage from the brief fighting in Bender during Transnistria's war for independence from Moldova
Bender's war memorial

The Transnistria War (Războiul din Transnistria; Война в Приднестровье) was an armed conflict that broke out on 2 November 1990 in Dubăsari (Дубосса́ры) between pro-Transnistria (Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic [PMR]) forces, including the Transnistrian Republican Guard, militia and neo-Cossack units (which were supported by elements of the Russian 14th Army), and pro-Moldovan forces, including Moldovan troops and police.


River in Eastern Europe.

Dnister's riverhead in Staryi Sambir (western Ukraine)
The Dniester at the Moldavian fortress of Tighina.
The Dniester in Khotyn (western Ukraine). Another Moldavian fortress and an Orthodox church seen on foreground.
At the confluence of the Seret and the Dniester.

It runs first through Ukraine and then through Moldova (from which it more or less separates the breakaway territory of Transnistria), finally discharging into the Black Sea on Ukrainian territory again.

List of states with limited recognition

[[File:Limited recognition.png|thumb|upright=1.8|

Women in Somaliland wearing the colors of the Somaliland flag

Kosovo, Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh), Northern Cyprus, Abkhazia, Transnistria, the Sahrawi Republic, Somaliland, and Palestine also host informal diplomatic missions, and/or maintain special delegations or other informal missions abroad.


Historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.

Map of Bessarabia within Moldova and Ukraine
Map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clark's 1927 book Bessarabia, Russia and Roumania on the Black Sea
Map of Bessarabia within Moldavia through time
According to one theory, the region's name originated from the Wallachian rule during the late 14th century (1390 map).
Most of Bessarabia was for centuries part of the principality of Moldavia (1800 map).
Akkerman fortress in Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Ukraine) was one of the many important castles in Bessarabia.
The Moldavian (later Romanian)–Russian boundary between 1856/1857 and 1878
Declaration of unification of Romania and Bessarabia
Bessarabia (pale purple) and the other historical regions of Romania between 1918 and 1940.
Ethnic map of the Kingdom of Romania per the 1930 census
Administrative map of the Bessarabia Governorate in February 1942
Ethnic composition of the Bessarabia Governorate according to the 1941 census, after the Romanian authorities had "cleansed" the Jewish population
Moldavian SSR (in red) as part of the Soviet Union (yellow)
Ethnic map of Bessarabia in 1930

Following a short war in the early 1990s, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic was proclaimed in the Transnistria, extending its authority also over the municipality of Bender on the right bank of Dniester river.

Demilitarized zone

Area in which treaties or agreements between nations, military powers or contending groups forbid military installations, activities, or personnel.

The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone separating North and South Vietnam in 1969
Historical map of the promontory of Gibraltar.

Joint Control Commission – Known locally as the Dniester Valley Security Zone, the demilitarized buffer zone was created by the cease-fire agreement ending the War of Transnistria. The Commission's peacekeeping mission monitors the demilitarized zone which roughly outlines the Dnister river between Moldova and Transnistria. It is 225 kilometers long and from 1 to 15 kilometers wide.


Landlocked country in Eastern Europe.

The Principality of Moldavia and the modern boundaries of Moldova, Ukraine, and Romania
Territorial changes of Moldavia following the Treaty of Bucharest 1812.
A map of Greater Romania between 1920 and 1940.
Monument to the villagers who died in World War II, the village Cojușna, Strășeni District.
Bessarabia Germans evacuating after the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia in 1940.
Bălți in Soviet Moldavia in 1985
Deputy Gheorghe Ghimpu replaces the Soviet flag on the Parliament with the Romanian flag on 27 April 1990.
Protests outside the Parliament building in 2009
The Moldovan Parliament
Presidential Palace, Chișinău
Ministry of Internal Affairs of Moldova, Chișinău
Accession to the EU is a central issue in Moldovan politics
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
A soldier of the Moldovan Army at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center in Hohenfels, Germany
Scenery in Moldova, with Dniester River
Beach on the shore of Dniester River near Vadul lui Vodă
Cave churches at Old Orhei, part of the only national park in the country
Toltrele Prutului near Fetești, Edineț District
Noted for its vivid portrayal of the lower Dniester river, Henryk Sienkiewicz's novel With Fire and Sword opens with a description of saigas as a way to highlight the story's exotic setting. Saigas are a critically endangered species that is now extinct in Moldova.
A proportional representation of Moldova exports, 2019
Moldova GDP by sector
Real GPD per capita development of Moldova, 1973 to 2018
MallDova shopping centre in Chișinău
Mileștii Mici is home to the world's biggest wine cellars.
Chișinău International Airport.
Ethnic map of the Republic of Moldova (2014)
The National Library of Moldova
Moldovans wearing national costumes in Chișinău
Popular Moldovan dishes accompanied by sauerkraut and mămăligă.
Zdob și Zdub performing at the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest.
Moldova national football team in 2015
Moldavian Orthodox church in Condrița.

The unrecognised breakaway region of Transnistria lies across the Dniester on the country's eastern border with Ukraine.


Transnistria parliament building in Tiraspol. In front is a statue of Vladimir Lenin
Soviet MiG-19 monument in Tiraspol
Heroes memorial in Tiraspol (2012)
A trolleybus in Tiraspol painted in the colours of the Transnistrian flag
Russian Orthodox church on Shevchenko Street
Tiraspol Drama Theater
Victory day in Tiraspol, 2017.
Mikhail Larionov 1917
Sergey Stepanov 2010
Sign at the entrance to Tiraspol
The statue of Alexander Suvorov at Suvorov Square
A street in central Tiraspol
The Victory Park
The Dnestr river passing through Tiraspol
The statue of Lenin in front of the parliament building
Street scene in Tiraspol
The House of Soviets
Young man on a Soviet-era tank in Tiraspol
War memorial and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
Part of the Tiraspol city centre
View along the Dniester river in Tiraspol

Tiraspol (Tiraspol, Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet: Тираспол; Тира́споль ; Тирасполь ) is the capital of Transnistria (de facto), a breakaway state in Moldova (de jure), where it is the third largest city.

Unification of Moldova and Romania

Popular concept in the two countries that began in the late 1980s, during the Revolutions of 1989.

On holiday Limba Noastră (31 August 1989)
Opposition demonstration in Chișinău in January 2002. The text on the inscription reads "Romanian people–Romanian language".
Graffiti with shapes of Greater Romania near Briceni, Moldova. The portrait is of Stephen the Great, a national hero in both countries.
"Romania and Moldova Reunited in 2018!" graffiti seen on a wall adjacent to Bucharest Ring in December, 2017.
Young protesters demanding Romanian president, Klaus Iohannis, the unification in Chișinău, in February 2015
Meeting for unification in Sibiu, on 8 April 2009
Pro-European demonstration in Chișinău, on 6 April 2014

Support for unification with Romania is much lower in Transnistria and Gagauzia than in the rest of Moldova.

Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

Ultimatum by the Soviet Union to Romania on June 26, 1940, that threatened the use of force.

Soviet parade in Chișinău
A column of Soviet armored vehicles entering Bessarabia, June 1940
Interwar Romania (1920–1940)
Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Behind him are (left) German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.
Planned and actual divisions of Central Europe, according to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Animation of the European Theatre
The division of Bukovina after June 28, 1940. The region labelled as Herța (Hertsa) and the land in white just to the right of Northern Bukovina between the rivers Nistru (Dniester) and Prut (Prut) were also taken by the Soviet Union.
Soviet Marshal Semyon Timoshenko in Bessarabia
Romania in 1940 with Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina highlighted in orange-red
Soviet military parade in Chișinău on July 4, 1940
Refugees after the occupation
A train with refugees
Red Cross helping refugees in Romania in a government newsreel
Military ordinance forbidding use of foreign languages and wearing of "Russian caps" in Bessarabia, 15 November 1941
Jews being deported to concentration camps by the Romanian Army
Soviet Operations 19 August to 31 December 1944
Ethnic map of Interwar Romania (census 1930)
Volksdeutsche resettling after the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia

On August 2, 1940, the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, encompassing most of Bessarabia and part of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, an autonomous republic of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic on the left bank of the Dniester (now the breakaway Transnistria).