Transposition of the great vessels

transposition of the great arteriesTransposition of great vesselsDouble discordiaGreat vessels transpositionransposition of the great arteriesTGAtransposition of the great blood vessels
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.wikipedia
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Great vessels

great vessel
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.
Transposition of the great vessels is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels.

Dextro-Transposition of the great arteries

complete transposition of the great arteriesd-Transposition of the great arteriesdextro-TGA
The terms TGV and TGA are most commonly used in reference to dextro-TGA – in which the arteries are in swapped positions; however, both terms are also commonly used, though to a slightly lesser extent, in reference to levo-TGA – in which both the arteries and the ventricles are swapped; while other defects in this category are almost never referred to by either of these terms.
d-TGA is often referred to simply as transposition of the great arteries (TGA); however, TGA is a more general term which may also refer to levo-transposition of the great arteries (l-TGA).

Congenital heart defect

congenital heart diseasecongenital heart defectsheart defect
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.
The vessels may be reversed ("transposition of the great vessels").

Inferior vena cava

inferiorIVCposterior vena cava
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.
In transposition of the great arteries the inferior vena cava may lie on the left.

Levo-Transposition of the great arteries

Corrected transpositionl-TGAL-transposition and ccTGA
The terms TGV and TGA are most commonly used in reference to dextro-TGA – in which the arteries are in swapped positions; however, both terms are also commonly used, though to a slightly lesser extent, in reference to levo-TGA – in which both the arteries and the ventricles are swapped; while other defects in this category are almost never referred to by either of these terms.
l-TGA is often referred to simply as transposition of the great arteries (TGA); however, TGA is a more general term which may also refer to dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA).

Transposition (birth defect)

Transposed
Transposed vessels can present a large variety of atriovenous, ventriculoarterial and/or arteriovenous discordance.

Aorta

aorticaortic archaortic root
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.

Patent ductus arteriosus

ductus arteriosusductus arteriosus, patentAdult patent ductus arteriosus
In many cases, TGV is accompanied by other heart defects, the most common type being intracardiac shunts such as atrial septal defect including patent foramen ovale, ventricular septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus. For newborns with transposition, prostaglandins can be given to keep the ductus arteriosus open which allows mixing of the otherwise isolated pulmonary and systemic circuits.
If transposition of the great vessels is present in addition to a PDA, the PDA is not surgically closed since it is the only way that oxygenated blood can mix with deoxygenated blood.

Cyanotic heart defect

cyanoticcyanotic heart diseaseacyanotic heart disease
It is called a cyanotic congenital heart defect (CHD) because the newborn infant turns blue from lack of oxygen.

Atrial switch

Rarely the arterial switch is not feasible due to particular coronary artery anatomy and an atrial switch operation is preferred.
Atrial switch is a heart operation performed to treat dextro- transposition of the great arteries.

Mustard procedure

Mustard cardiovascular procedureMustardMustard surgical procedure
The defect is called transposition of the great vessels, or transposition of the great arteries (TGV or TGA).

Arterial switch operation

Jatene procedurearterial switchJatene operation
The arterial switch operation is the definitive treatment for dextro-transposition.
Scottish pathologist Matthew Baillie first described TGA in 1797, presumably as a posthumous diagnosis.

Ductus arteriosus

ductus arteriosisductal
For newborns with transposition, prostaglandins can be given to keep the ductus arteriosus open which allows mixing of the otherwise isolated pulmonary and systemic circuits.
In some types of congenital heart defect (e.g., transposition of the great arteries), prostaglandins may be administered to maintain the ductus arteriosus open, allowing for the continual circulation and oxygenation of blood, until surgery can be performed.

Matthew Baillie

Dr. Matthew BaillieMatthew Baille
TGV was first described in 1797 by Matthew Baillie.
He is credited with first identifying transposition of the great vessels (TGV) and situs inversus.

Birth defect

congenitalcongenital disorderbirth defects
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.

Superior vena cava

superioranterior vena cavaSVC
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.

Venae cavae

vena cavavena cavaevenæ cavæ
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.

Pulmonary artery

pulmonary arteriespulmonary trunkpulmonary artery pressure
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.

Pulmonary vein

pulmonary veinspulmonaryPulmonary venous
Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.

Artery

arteriesarterialarterial system
Congenital heart diseases involving only the primary arteries (pulmonary artery and aorta) belong to a sub-group called transposition of the great arteries.

Discord

discordantdiscordanceDischord
Transposed vessels can present a large variety of atriovenous, ventriculoarterial and/or arteriovenous discordance.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
The effects may range from a change in blood pressure to an interruption in circulation, depending on the nature and degree of the misplacement and which vessels are involved.

Ventricle (heart)

ventricleleft ventricleright ventricle
The terms TGV and TGA are most commonly used in reference to dextro-TGA – in which the arteries are in swapped positions; however, both terms are also commonly used, though to a slightly lesser extent, in reference to levo-TGA – in which both the arteries and the ventricles are swapped; while other defects in this category are almost never referred to by either of these terms.

Fallacy

informal fallacyfallacieslogical fallacy
In effect, two separate "circular" (parallel) circulatory systems are created.

Acyanotic heart defect

acyanoticnon-cyanotic heart defectacyanotic disorder
Levo-Transposition of the great arteries is an acyanotic heart defect in which the primary arteries are transposed, with the aorta anterior and to the left of the pulmonary artery, and the morphological left and right ventricles with their corresponding atrioventricular valves are also transposed.