Transylvania

TransylvanianTransilvaniaSiebenbürgenGrand Principality of TransylvaniaTransylvania, RomaniaArdealCount Dracula's homelandEastern TransylvaniaNorth TransylvaniaPrince of Transylvania
For other uses, see Transylvania (disambiguation).wikipedia
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Sibiu

HermannstadtNagyszebenSzeben
It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg, Kolozsvár), Brașov (Kronstadt, Brassó), Sibiu (Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben), Târgu Mureș (Neumarkt am Mieresch, Marosvásárhely), and Bistrița (Bistritz, Beszterce).
Sibiu (, antiquated Sibiiu; Cibinium; Hermannstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Härmeschtat, Nagyszeben ) is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245.

Romania

🇷🇴ROURomanian
Transylvania is a historical region which today is located in central Romania. The national holiday of Romania, the Great Union Day (also called Unification Day ) occurring on December 1, celebrates this event.
Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bukovina, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania.

Bistrița

BeszterceBistritzBeszterce (Bistrița)
It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg, Kolozsvár), Brașov (Kronstadt, Brassó), Sibiu (Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben), Târgu Mureș (Neumarkt am Mieresch, Marosvásárhely), and Bistrița (Bistritz, Beszterce).
Bistrița (Bistritz, archaic Nösen;, Transylvanian Saxon: Bästerts, Beszterce) is the capital city of Bistrița-Năsăud County, in northern Transylvania, Romania.

Apuseni Mountains

ApuseniApuseni MountainBeiuș Depression
Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains.
The Apuseni Mountains (Munții Apuseni, Erdélyi-középhegység) is a mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Romanian Carpathians, also called Occidentali in Romanian.

Dracula

novelCount Draculanovel of the same name
The Western world commonly associates Transylvania with vampires, due to the influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and its many film adaptations.
The novel tells the story of Dracula's attempt to move from Transylvania to England so that he may find new blood and spread the undead curse, and of the battle between Dracula and a small group of men and a woman led by Professor Abraham Van Helsing.

Hungarian language

HungarianMagyarHungarian-language
In Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania ; in Hungarian as Erdély ; in German as Siebenbürgen ; and in Turkish as Transilvanya but historically as Erdel or Erdelistan; see also other denominations.
Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia (Mur region).

Roman Dacia

DaciaRoman province of DaciaDacia Traiana
In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory, systematically exploiting its resources.
Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana "Trajan Dacia" or Dacia Felix "Fertile/Happy Dacia") was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD. Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania, the Banat and Oltenia (regions of modern Romania).

Romanian language

RomanianRomanian-languagero
In Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania ; in Hungarian as Erdély ; in German as Siebenbürgen ; and in Turkish as Transilvanya but historically as Erdel or Erdelistan; see also other denominations.
Other regions—Banat, western Muntenia, Oltenia and Transylvania—formed the Roman province of Dacia Traiana for about 170 years.

Gelou

GeluGelou of TransylvaniaVoievodul Gelu
According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode Gelou ruled Transylvania before the Hungarians arrived.
Gelou (Gelu; Gyalu) was the Vlach ruler of Transylvania at the time of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin around 900 AD, according to the Gesta Hungarorum.

Voivode of Transylvania

voivodeTransylvaniadeputy voivode of Transylvania
Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary.
The Voivode of Transylvania (Vojwode von Siebenbürgen; erdélyi vajda; voivoda Transsylvaniae; voievodul Transilvaniei) was the highest-ranking official in Transylvania within the Kingdom of Hungary from the 12th century to the 16th century.

Târgu Mureș

MarosvásárhelyMaros-VásárhelyMaros-Vásárhelyini
It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg, Kolozsvár), Brașov (Kronstadt, Brassó), Sibiu (Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben), Târgu Mureș (Neumarkt am Mieresch, Marosvásárhely), and Bistrița (Bistritz, Beszterce).
After World War I, together with the rest of Transylvania, Marosvásáshely became part of Romania and was renamed Oșorheiu.

Gyula III

GyulaGyula the YoungerGyula (or Prokuj)
The Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula.
Gyula III, also Iula or Gyula the Younger, Geula or Gyla, was an early medieval ruler who apparently ruled in Transylvania (c. 980 - 1003/1004 ).

Carpathian Mountains

CarpathiansCarpathianSłonne Mountain
Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains.
They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the southeast, and end on the Danube near Orşova in Romania.

Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)

Principality of TransylvaniaTransylvaniaTransylvanian
Later, in 1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania, which was ruled primarily by Calvinist Hungarian princes.
Its territory, in addition to the traditional Transylvanian lands, also included eastern regions of Hungary, called Partium.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarians
Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Transylvania and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia), Burgenland (now part of Austria), and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders.

Transylvanian Saxon dialect

Transylvanian SaxonTransylvania "Saxon
Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjen
The dialect was mainly spoken in Transylvania (contemporary central Romania), by individuals of German, Flemish, and Walloon origins who were settled in the Kingdom of Hungary starting in the 12th century.

Stephen I of Hungary

Stephen ISaint StephenStephen
The Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula.
Hungarian chronicles agree that Stephen's mother was Sarolt, daughter of Gyula, a Hungarian chieftain with jurisdiction either in Transylvania or in the wider region of the confluence of the rivers Tisza and Maros.

Romanians

Romanianethnic Romanianethnic Romanians
It is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Post-classical Era (becoming the ancestors of modern Romanians) or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula. Elected representatives of the ethnic Romanians from Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş backed by the mobilization of Romanian troops, proclaimed Union with Romania on 1 December 1918.
Besides the separation of some groups (Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, and Istro-Romanians) during the Age of Migration, many Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, in Transylvania, across Carpathian Mountains as far north as Poland and as far west as the regions of Moravia (part of the modern Czech Republic), some went as far east as Volhynia of western Ukraine, and the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs gradually disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.

Origin of the Romanians

origin of RomaniansRomanian ethnogenesisRomanian origins
There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest (see Origin of the Romanians).
Political and ideological considerations, including the dispute between Hungary and Romania over Transylvania, have also colored these scholarly discussions.

Blaj Pronouncement

Romanian intellectuals issued the Blaj Pronouncement in protest.
The Blaj Pronouncement (Pronunciamentul de la Blaj, balázsfalvi kiáltvány) is an 1868 document that expresses the reaction of its Transylvanian Romanian backers to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which established a dual monarchy in Austria-Hungary.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
For most of this period, Transylvania, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.
Transylvania, Wallachia and, intermittently, Moldavia, became tributary principalities of the Ottoman Empire.

Union of Transylvania with Romania

union with Romaniaunited with RomaniaGreat Union
Elected representatives of the ethnic Romanians from Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş backed by the mobilization of Romanian troops, proclaimed Union with Romania on 1 December 1918.
The holiday was established after the Romanian Revolution, and marks the unification not only of Transylvania, but also of Bessarabia and Bukovina and parts of Banat, Crișana and Maramureș with the Romanian Kingdom.

Dacia

Dacian KingdomKingdom of DaciaDacian
It was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia (82 BC–106 AD).
The Roman province Dacia Traiana, established by the victors of the Dacian Wars during AD 101–106, initially comprised only the regions known today as Banat, Oltenia, Transylvania, and was subsequently gradually extended to southern parts of Moldavia, while Dobruja and Budjak belonged the Roman province of Moesia.

Great Union Day

union with RomaniaGreat National AssemblyGreat Union
The national holiday of Romania, the Great Union Day (also called Unification Day ) occurring on December 1, celebrates this event.
It marks the unification of Transylvania, Bessarabia, and Bukovina with the Romanian Kingdom in 1918.

Southern Transylvania

This award allowed Romania to keep Southern Transylvania, which was larger and had a potent military industry.
The region of Transylvania, belonging entirely to Romania when the war started in 1939, was split in 1940 between Romania and Hungary, with the latter taking Northern Transylvania in the aftermath of the Second Vienna Award.