Transylvania

TransylvanianTransilvaniaSiebenbürgenArdealErdélyTranssylvaniaTransylvania, RomaniaGrand Principality of TransylvaniaSiebenbürgen regionTransylvanians
Transylvania is a historical region which is located in central Romania.wikipedia
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Sibiu

HermannstadtNagyszebenSibiu, Romania
It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Alba Iulia and Bistrița.
Sibiu (, antiquated Sibiiu; Cibinium; Hermannstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Härmeschtat, Nagyszeben ) is a city in Transylvania, Romania, with a population of 147,245.

Romania

ROURomanianRomânia
Transylvania is a historical region which is located in central Romania.
Following World War I after declaring its neutrality in 1914, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers starting with 1916, Bukovina, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, and Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania.

Apuseni Mountains

ApuseniGilău MountainsBeiuș Depression
Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains.
The Apuseni Mountains (Munții Apuseni, Erdélyi-középhegység) is a mountain range in Transylvania, Romania, which belongs to the Western Romanian Carpathians, also called Occidentali in Romanian.

Bistrița

BistriţaBeszterceBistritz
It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Alba Iulia and Bistrița.
Bistrița (Bistritz, archaic Nösen;, Transylvanian Saxon: Bästerts, Beszterce) is the capital city of Bistrița-Năsăud County, in northern Transylvania, Romania.

Alba Iulia

GyulafehérvárAlba-IuliaApulum
It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Alba Iulia and Bistrița.
Located on the Mureș River in the historical region of Transylvania, it has a population of 63,536.

Dracula

novelCarfax AbbeyCount Dracula
The Anglosphere commonly associates Transylvania with vampires, thanks to the dominant influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and the many films the tale inspired.
The novel tells the story of Dracula's attempt to move from Transylvania to England so that he may find new blood and spread the undead curse, and of the battle between Dracula and a small group of men and a woman led by Professor Abraham Van Helsing.

Hungarian language

HungarianMagyarHungarian-language
In Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania ; in Hungarian as Erdély ; in German as Siebenbürgen ; and in Turkish as Transilvanya but historically as Erdel or Erdelistan; see also other denominations.
Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia and northern Slovenia (Mur region).

Roman Dacia

DaciaDacia SuperiorDacia Apulensis
In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory, systematically exploiting its resources.
Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania, the Banat and Oltenia (regions of modern Romania).

Romanian language

RomanianRomanian-languageDaco-Romanian
In Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania ; in Hungarian as Erdély ; in German as Siebenbürgen ; and in Turkish as Transilvanya but historically as Erdel or Erdelistan; see also other denominations.
Other regions—Banat, western Muntenia, Oltenia and Transylvania—formed the Roman province of Dacia Traiana for about 170 years.

Gelou

GeluDuchy of GelouGelou of Transylvania
According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode Gelou ruled Transylvania before the Hungarians arrived.
Gelou (Gelu; Gyalu) was the Vlach ruler of Transylvania at the time of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin around 900 AD, according to the Gesta Hungarorum.

Voivode of Transylvania

voivodeTransylvaniaTransylvanian voivode
Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary.
The Voivode of Transylvania (Vojwode von Siebenbürgen; erdélyi vajda; voivoda Transsylvaniae; voievodul Transilvaniei) was the highest-ranking official in Transylvania within the Kingdom of Hungary from the 12th century to the 16th century.

Carpathian Mountains

CarpathiansCarpathianSłonne Mountain
Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains.
They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the southeast, and end on the Danube near Orşova in Romania.

Târgu Mureș

Târgu MureşMarosvásárhelyTârgu-Mureş
It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Alba Iulia and Bistrița.
After World War I, together with the rest of Transylvania, Marosvásáshely became part of Romania and was renamed Oșorheiu.

Gyula III

GyulaGyula the YoungerGyula (or Prokuj)
The Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula.
Gyula III, also Iula or Gyula the Younger, Geula or Gyla, was an early medieval ruler who apparently ruled in Transylvania (c. 980 - 1003/1004 ).

Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)

Principality of TransylvaniaTransylvaniaTransylvanian
Later, in 1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania, which was ruled primarily by Calvinist Hungarian princes.
Its territory, in addition to the traditional Transylvanian lands, also included eastern regions of Hungary, called Partium.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarian Kingdom
Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Slovakia, Transylvania and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia), Burgenland (now part of Austria), Međimurje (now part of Croatia), Prekmurje (now part of Slovenia) and a few villages in Poland).

Transylvanian Saxon dialect

Transylvanian SaxonSiebenbürgischTransylvania "Saxon
The dialect was mainly spoken in Transylvania (contemporary central Romania), by individuals of German, Flemish, and Walloon origins who were settled in the Kingdom of Hungary starting in the 12th century.

Romanians

Romanianethnic Romanianethnic Romanians
It is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Post-classical Era (becoming the ancestors of modern Romanians) or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula. Elected representatives of the ethnic Romanians from Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş backed by the mobilization of Romanian troops, proclaimed Union with Romania on 1 December 1918.
Besides the separation of some groups (Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, and Istro-Romanians) during the Age of Migration, many Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, in Transylvania, across Carpathian Mountains as far north as Poland and as far west as the regions of Moravia (part of the modern Czech Republic), some went as far east as Volhynia of western Ukraine, and the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs gradually disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.

Stephen I of Hungary

Stephen ISaint StephenStephen
The Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula.
Hungarian chronicles agree that Stephen's mother was Sarolt, daughter of Gyula, a Hungarian chieftain with jurisdiction either in Transylvania or in the wider region of the confluence of the rivers Tisza and Maros.

Origin of the Romanians

Origin of RomaniansRomanian ethnogenesisRomanian origins
There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest (see Origin of the Romanians).
Political and ideological considerations, including the dispute between Hungary and Romania over Transylvania, have also colored these scholarly discussions.

Țara Hațegului

District of HátszegHațeg CountryHateg Country Dinosaur Geopark
According to the Romanian interpretations, Antun Vrančić wrote that Transylvania "is inhabited by three nations – Székelys, Hungarians and Saxons; I should also add the Romanians who – even though they easily equal the others in number – have no liberties, no nobility and no rights of their own, except for a small number living in the District of Hátszeg, where it is believed that the capital of Decebalus lay, and who were made nobles during the time of John Hunyadi, a native of that place, because they always took part tirelessly in the battles against the Turks", while according to the Hungarian interpretations the translation of the first part of the sentence would be "...I should also add the Romanians who – even though they easily equal any of the others in number...".
Țara Hațegului ("Hațeg Land"; Wallenthal, Hátszegvidék, terra Harszoc) is a historical and ethnographical area in Hunedoara County, Romania, in the south-western corner of Transylvania.

Battle of Transylvania

invaded Transylvaniainvasioninvasion of Transylvania
The region was the site of an important battle during World War I, which caused the replacement of the German Chief of Staff, temporarily ceased German offensives on all the other fronts and created a unified Central Powers command under the German Kaiser.
It started as an attempt by the Romanian Army to seize the disputed province of Transylvania, and potentially knock Austria-Hungary out of the war.

Blaj Pronouncement

Romanian intellectuals issued the Blaj Pronouncement in protest.
The Blaj Pronouncement (Pronunciamentul de la Blaj, balázsfalvi kiáltvány) is an 1868 document that expresses the reaction of its Transylvanian Romanian backers to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which established a dual monarchy in Austria-Hungary.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
For most of this period, Transylvania, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.
Transylvania, Wallachia and, intermittently, Moldavia, became tributary principalities of the Ottoman Empire.

Union of Transylvania with Romania

union with Romaniaunited with RomaniaGreat Union
Elected representatives of the ethnic Romanians from Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş backed by the mobilization of Romanian troops, proclaimed Union with Romania on 1 December 1918.
The holiday was established after the Romanian Revolution, and commemorates the unification not only of Transylvania, but also of Bessarabia and Bukovina and parts of Banat, Crișana and Maramureș with the Romanian Kingdom.