Traumatic brain injury

traumatic brain injuriesbrain traumabrain injurybrain injuriesTBItraumahead injurytraumatic brain injury (TBI)cerebral traumacerebral swelling
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.wikipedia
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Closed-head injury

closed head injuryhead traumahead injuries
TBI can be classified based on severity, mechanism (closed or penetrating head injury), or other features (e.g., occurring in a specific location or over a widespread area).
Closed-head injury is a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull and dura mater remain intact.

Post-traumatic amnesia

not to rememberpost-traumaticPost-traumatic amnesia (PTA)
A current model developed by the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs uses all three criteria of GCS after resuscitation, duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), and loss of consciousness (LOC).
Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is a state of confusion that occurs immediately following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which the injured person is disoriented and unable to remember events that occur after the injury.

Supported employment

sheltered employmentsupported or transitional employment
Counseling, supported employment, and community support services may also be useful.
Supported employment refers to service provisions wherein people with disabilities, including intellectual disabilities, mental health, and traumatic brain injury, among others, are assisted with obtaining and maintaining employment.

Diffuse axonal injury

shearing injuriesaxonal injuryAxonal stretch injury
Diffuse injury manifests with little apparent damage in neuroimaging studies, but lesions can be seen with microscopy techniques post-mortem, and in the early 2000s, researchers discovered that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a way of processing MRI images that shows white matter tracts, was an effective tool for displaying the extent of diffuse axonal injury.
DAI is one of the most common and devastating types of traumatic brain injury and is a major cause of unconsciousness and persistent vegetative state after severe head trauma.

Acquired brain injury

brain injuryacquired brain injuriesbrain injuries
TBI is one of two subsets of acquired brain injury (brain damage that occur after birth); the other subset is non-traumatic brain injury, which does not involve external mechanical force (examples include stroke and infection).
These impairments result from either traumatic brain injury (e.g. physical trauma due to accidents, assaults, neurosurgery, head injury etc.) or nontraumatic injury derived from either an internal or external source (e.g. stroke, brain tumours, infection, poisoning, hypoxia, ischemia, encephalopathy or substance abuse).

CT scan

computed tomographyCTCT scans
Some of the imaging techniques used for diagnosis include computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs).
CT scans may be used to diagnose headache when neuroimaging is indicated and MRI is not available, or in emergency settings when hemorrhage, stroke, or traumatic brain injury are suspected.


concussionsconcussedmild traumatic brain injury
Brain injuries can be classified into mild, moderate, and severe categories. Grading scales also exist to classify the severity of mild TBI, commonly called concussion; these use duration of LOC, PTA, and other concussion symptoms.
Otherwise, it is considered a moderate or severe traumatic brain injury.

Cerebral laceration

One type of focal injury, cerebral laceration, occurs when the tissue is cut or torn.
A cerebral laceration is a type of traumatic brain injury that occurs when the tissue of the brain is mechanically cut or torn.

Subdural hematoma

subdural haematomasubdural hemorrhageacute subdural hematoma
Extra-axial lesions include epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage.
A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a type of bleeding in which a collection of blood—usually associated with a traumatic brain injury—gathers between the inner layer of the dura mater and the arachnoid mater of the meninges surrounding the brain.

Cerebral contusion

brain contusioncontusionbrain
In a similar injury, cerebral contusion (bruising of brain tissue), blood is mixed among tissue.
Cerebral contusion, Latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue.

Concussion grading systems

concussion grading scalesconcussion management guidelinesGrading scales
Grading scales also exist to classify the severity of mild TBI, commonly called concussion; these use duration of LOC, PTA, and other concussion symptoms.
Concussion grading systems are sets of criteria used in sports medicine to determine the severity, or grade, of a concussion, the mildest form of traumatic brain injury.


unconsciousloss of consciousnessnarcosis
A current model developed by the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs uses all three criteria of GCS after resuscitation, duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), and loss of consciousness (LOC).
Unconsciousness may occur as the result of traumatic brain injury, brain hypoxia (e.g., due to a brain infarction or cardiac arrest), severe poisoning with drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system (e.g., alcohol and other hypnotic or sedative drugs), severe fatigue, anaesthesia, and other causes.

Intracerebral hemorrhage

cerebral hemorrhagebrain hemorrhagecerebral haemorrhage
Intracerebral hemorrhage, with bleeding in the brain tissue itself, is an intra-axial lesion.
Causes include brain trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and brain tumors.

Blast injury

blastblast injuriesblasts
Traumatic brain injury is defined as damage to the brain resulting from external mechanical force, such as rapid acceleration or deceleration, impact, blast waves, or penetration by a projectile.
Thus, the majority of prior research focused on the mechanisms of blast injuries within gas-containing organs and organ systems such as the lungs, while primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury has remained underestimated.


hemiplegiahemiplegicweakness of half the body
Symptoms such as hemiparesis or aphasia can also occur when less commonly affected areas such as motor or language areas are, respectively, damaged.
Other causes of hemiplegia include spinal cord injury, specifically Brown-Séquard syndrome, traumatic brain injury, or disease affecting the brain.

Intracranial pressure

increased intracranial pressureintracranial hypertensionpressure inside the skull
These processes include alterations in cerebral blood flow and the pressure within the skull.
One of the most damaging aspects of brain trauma and other conditions, directly correlated with poor outcome, is an elevated intracranial pressure.

Coup contrecoup injury

contrecoupcontrecoup injurycontre-coup
Damage may occur directly under the site of impact, or it may occur on the side opposite the impact (coup and contrecoup injury, respectively).
Coup and contrecoup injuries are associated with cerebral contusions, a type of traumatic brain injury in which the brain is bruised.

Glasgow Coma Scale

Glasgow Coma ScoreGCSGlasgow Coma Scale (GCS)
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the most commonly used system for classifying TBI severity, grades a person's level of consciousness on a scale of 3–15 based on verbal, motor, and eye-opening reactions to stimuli.
The initial indication for use of the GCS was serial assessments of people with traumatic brain injury and coma for at least six hours in the neurosurgical ICU setting, though it is commonly used throughout hospital departments.

Intraventricular hemorrhage

Intraventricular haemorrhagebleeding into the brain's ventriclesintraventricular
Extra-axial lesions include epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage.
Intraventricular hemorrhage has been found to occur in 35% of moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries.

Abnormal posturing

Decerebrate posturingdecerebrate responsedecerebrate rigidity
Abnormal posturing, a characteristic positioning of the limbs caused by severe diffuse injury or high ICP, is an ominous sign.
Such conditions include traumatic brain injury, stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, brain tumors, and encephalopathy.

Brain herniation

uncal herniationherniationBrain compression
When the pressure within the skull rises too high, it can cause brain death or herniation, in which parts of the brain are squeezed by structures in the skull.
Herniation can be caused by a number of factors that cause a mass effect and increase intracranial pressure (ICP): these include traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, or brain tumor.


excitotoxicexcitotoxinglutamate toxicity
Secondary injury events include damage to the blood–brain barrier, release of factors that cause inflammation, free radical overload, excessive release of the neurotransmitter glutamate (excitotoxicity), influx of calcium and sodium ions into neurons, and dysfunction of mitochondria.
Excitotoxicity may be involved in spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, hearing loss (through noise overexposure or ototoxicity), and in neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease, alcoholism or alcohol withdrawal and especially over-rapid benzodiazepine withdrawal, and also Huntington's disease.

Rehabilitation (neuropsychology)

rehabilitationneurological rehabilitationneuropsychological rehabilitation
Neuropsychological assessment can be performed to evaluate the long-term cognitive sequelae and to aid in the planning of the rehabilitation.
Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or trauma.

Penetrating trauma

penetratingpuncture woundpenetrating injury
Shock waves caused by penetrating injuries can also destroy tissue along the path of a projectile, compounding the damage caused by the missile itself.
While penetrating head trauma accounts for only a small percentage of all traumatic brain injuries (TBI), it is associated with a high mortality rate, and only a third of people with penetrating head trauma survive long enough to arrive at a hospital.

Head injury

head traumahead injurieshead
Head injury is a broader category that may involve damage to other structures such as the scalp and skull.
According to the United States CDC, 32% of traumatic brain injuries (another, more specific, term for head injuries) are caused by falls, 10% by assaults, 16.5% by being struck by or against something, 17% by motor vehicle accidents, and 21% by other/unknown ways.