Travel to work area

Travel to work areas in England and Wales
TTW Flow Map 2011 for England and Wales
Map of the London TTW area (red) showing the main road and rail links into the city.

Statistical tool used by UK Government agencies and local authorities, especially by the Department for Work and Pensions and Jobcentres, to indicate an area where the population would generally commute to a larger town, city or conurbation for the purposes of employment.

- Travel to work area

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Conurbation

Region comprising a number of metropolises, cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.

A map of the large conurbation area of Helsinki (in yellow) in Uusimaa, Finland
Satellite photo from 2012 showing Sydney in the centre, with Wollongong visible on the left and the Central Coast on the right
Nocturnal view of the New York City metropolitan area, the world's most brightly illuminated conurbation and largest urban landmass. Long Island extends 120 miles eastward from Manhattan, the central core of the conurbation.
The ten largest urban centers in China
Rhine-Ruhr, the largest conurbation of the European continent
2011 Rural Urban classification by Local Authority Districts in England
2011 Rural Urban classification by census Output Areas in England

In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area.

Metropolitan area

Region consisting of a densely populated Urban Agglomeration and its surrounding territories sharing industries, commercial areas, transport network, infrastructures and housing.

Satellite imagery showing the New York metropolitan area at night. Long Island extends to the east of the central core of Manhattan.

The United Kingdom government's Office for National Statistics defines "travel to work areas" as areas where "at least 75% of an area's resident workforce work in the area and at least 75% of the people who work in the area also live in the area".

State of the English Cities

2006 study of the social and economic performance of the major cities of England, sponsored by the Communities and Local Government department of the United Kingdom Government.

Instead of focussing on political areas statistics were therefore published for primary urban areas and travel to work areas, as respectively physical and economic models of cities' extent, and areas of town centre activity, reflecting cities' central business districts.

Wells, Somerset

Cathedral city and civil parish in the Mendip district of Somerset, located on the southern edge of the Mendip Hills, 21 mi south-east of Weston-super-Mare, 22 mi south-west of Bath and 23 mi south of Bristol.

One of the three wells which give the city its name; two are located in the gardens of the Bishop's Palace (as shown) and one in the Market Place.
Vicars' Close facing the cathedral
The Market Place is the site of one of the city's ancient wells (note the water flowing in the gully, down High Street); the Bishop's Eye gatehouse (to the Bishop's Palace) is at the far end; two of Wells Cathedral's towers can be seen rising behind the buildings.
Wells Town Hall
Keward Brook
Looking west from the tower of the cathedral
Wells bus station
Wells stations on the Railway Clearing House map.
The Music School of Wells Cathedral School
St.Cuthbert Parish Church, Wells
Interior of Wells Cathedral, showing inverted arches inserted in 1338 to strengthen the building
The gates of Rowdens Road Cricket Ground dedicated to Mary Bignal-Rand
The Bishop's Palace gatehouse and drawbridge
Penniless Porch and the Bishop's Eye

Wells is part of the Wells and Shepton Mallet travel to work area which also includes Glastonbury, Cheddar and surrounding areas.

Kampala

Capital and largest city of Uganda.

Kampala, the city from Cathedral Hill in 1936.
Kampala. The Imperial Hotel in 1936.
Kampala in 1950s
Lake Victoria
The Kasubi Tombs
Makerere University
Street map of Kampala
View of Kampala from space
Ndere Centre in Kampala is a centre where all traditional Ugandan dances are represented. This dance is from the south of Uganda, on the border with Rwanda.
Mandela National Stadium
Traditional Fishermen on Lake Victoria outside Kampala
Standard Bank building in downtown Kampala
Taxi station in Kampala
Pioneer buses (2020)
Baha'i House of Worship in Kampala
St. Paul's Anglican Cathedral located on Namirembe Hill
Rubaga Cathedral, the seat for the Roman Catholic Church
Uganda National Mosque (Islam)
Mengo Palace
Kampala skyline
Entrance to the Parliament building
Stride monument
Kampala City by night
Nelson Mandela National Stadium, the home of the national football team, the Uganda Cranes
Independence Monument
Namugongo Martyrs Shrine
Uganda Museum
National Theatre
Uganda House – Kampala / Jinja Road

On 11 April 2011, the pressure group Activists for Change (A4C) held its first Walk to Work protest near Kampala, in response to a comment by President Museveni on the increased cost of fuel, which had risen by 50 percent between January and April 2011.

Greater Bristol

Term used for the conurbation which contains and surrounds the city of Bristol in the South West of England.

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The boundaries of the County of Avon, which administered the area from 1974 to 1996, were similar to those of the Bristol travel to work area as originally defined in the 1950s.

Leigh, Greater Manchester

Town in the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, Greater Manchester, England, on low-lying land northwest of Chat Moss.

Butts Mill, Leigh
Parsonage Colliery in 1980
The coat of arms of the former Leigh Municipal Borough Council
Leigh Town Hall
Leigh Library, [1971], also houses Turnpike Gallery & Derby Room
Leigh bus station
Former Leigh Grammar School for Girls
Door of Church of St Mary the Virgin
Leigh Sports Village stadium under construction in May 2008

Most of Leigh is within the Warrington & Wigan travel to work area (TTWA), whilst part of the eastern side of the town is within the Manchester TTWA.

Glasgow

Most populous city in Scotland and the fourth-most populous city in the United Kingdom, as well as being the 27th largest city by population in Europe.

Shipping on the Clyde, Atkinson Grimshaw, 1881
The 1919 Battle of George Square
Sauchiehall Street during World War II (1943)
Glasgow City Chambers, located on George Square, is the headquarters of Glasgow City Council and the seat of local government in the city, circa 1900.
Councillor Susan Aitken, the leader of Glasgow City Council since 2017
Panorama over Glasgow's South Side and West End from Queen's Park, looking north west. Left of centre can be seen the Clyde Arc bridge at Finnieston, while beyond is the tower of the University of Glasgow, with the Campsie Fells in the distance on the right.
Greater Glasgow population density map
Areas of Glasgow. Click to enlarge.
The Clyde Arc, also known locally as the "Squinty Bridge"
Looking down Buchanan Street towards St Enoch subway station
The Tolbooth Steeple dominates Glasgow Cross and marks the east side of the Merchant City.
The International Financial Services District alongside the River Clyde
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is Glasgow's premier museum and art gallery, housing one of Europe's best civic art collections.
People's Palace museum on Glasgow Green
The Doulton Fountain in Glasgow Green
Pacific Quay sits within the south side of Glasgow, and is home to some of the city's largest businesses and employers.
Ruchill Church, seen from the Forth and Clyde Canal
Established by wealthy tobacco merchant Stephen Mitchell, the Mitchell Library is now one of the largest public reference libraries in Europe
The OVO Hydro arena is the second-busiest arena venue in the world.
View of the entrance to the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall
Glasgow is home to the HQ of BBC Scotland in Pacific Quay
STV has its HQ located in Glasgow
Glasgow Cathedral marks the site where Saint Mungo built his church and established Glasgow
RMS Queen Elizabeth 2, better known as the QE2, was built in Glasgow at the John Brown Shipyard on the River Clyde.
is largely regarded as a sign of Glaswegian powerhouse shipbuilding industry.
A view towards the city centre of Glasgow, home to some of Scotland's largest industries and employers
Glasgow Central station is the northern terminus of the West Coast Main Line.
Glasgow Queen Street station is the main connection for rail services to Edinburgh and the Scottish Highlands.
Buchanan Bus Station is the main bus terminal within Glasgow.
The M8, which crosses the Clyde over the Kingston Bridge, is Scotland's busiest motorway.
Typical red sandstone Glasgow terrace
20th-century-style houses within the neighbourhood of Hillsborough Road
Queen Elizabeth University Hospital is the largest hospital campus in Europe.
The University of Glasgow is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and among the world's top 100 universities.
Glasgow is home to Hampden Park, home of the Scotland national football team.
Emirates Arena in Glasgow, one of the designated stadiums constructed for the 2014 Commonwealth Games
The aftermath of the 2007 Glasgow Airport attack, the first terrorist attack to take place in Scotland since the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie in 1988

The population of the city council area was 593,245 in 2011 and around 2,300,000 people live in the Glasgow travel to work area.

Larbert

Small town in the Falkirk council area of Scotland.

Larbert Parish Church and churchyard
Old Larbert manse 1639
A map showing the boundaries of the Falkirk Council area, one of the 32 Unitary authorities of Scotland. Larbert sits to the north of the council area.
Larbert and Stenhousemuir
The point at which Larbert merges into Stenhousemuir is known as "The Brae". The photograph is taken looking east into Stenhousemuir, with Larbert West Church in the foreground.
A street in the South Broomage area of Larbert with a mix of housing types
Central Business Park is home to a range of light service industries.
The southbound platform of Larbert railway station showing the main station building, which dates from 1976
Public Transport hub in the centre of Larbert, close to the railway station, showing new brownfield housing development in the background
Larbert Old Parish Church, built in 1820, stands above the River Carron on Larbert Cross.
Dorrator Iron Bridge was built in 1893.

Larbert sits in the travel to work area for both Edinburgh and Glasgow, with many residents commuting to work there daily.

South Hampshire

Term used mainly to refer to the conurbation formed by the city of Portsmouth, city of Southampton and the non-metropolitan boroughs of Gosport, Fareham, Havant and Eastleigh in southern Hampshire, South East England.

Population density map
Map of the districts making up Portsmouth urban area (blue) and Southampton urban area (red)

Slightly further out there are many satellite towns that may not be directly attached to Southampton or Portsmouth, or necessarily in their Travel to work areas, but are nonetheless still heavily reliant on the two cities for employment and services.