Treaty

treatiesinternational treatyinternational treatiesconventioninternational agreementagreementprotocolinternational bilateral treatiesinternational agreementsratified treaties
A treaty is a formal written agreement entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.wikipedia
1,457 Related Articles

International law

public international lawinternationallaw of nations
A treaty is a formal written agreement entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The sources of international law include international custom (general state practice accepted as law), treaties, and general principles of law recognized by most national legal systems.

International organization

international organizationsinternational organisationinternational organisations
A treaty is a formal written agreement entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
An international organization (intergovernmental organization) is an organization established by a treaty or other instrument governed by international law and possessing its own international legal personality, such as the United Nations, the World Health Organization and NATO.

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

law of treatiestreaty lawacceded
International law on treaties have mostly been codified by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT), which sets forth the rules and procedures for creating, enforcing, amending, and interpreting treaties.
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) is an international agreement regulating treaties between states.

Peace treaty

peace agreementpeace treatiespeace
A treaty typically begins with a preamble describing the "High Contracting Parties" and their shared objectives in executing the treaty, as well as summarizing any underlying events (such as the aftermath of a war in the case of a peace treaty).
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties.

Sources of international law

primary source of international lawSourcesa source of international law
As one of the earliest manifestations of international relations, treaties are recognized as a primary source of international law.
Sources of international law include treaties, international customs, general principles of law as recognized by civilized nations, the decisions of national and lower courts, and scholarly writings.

Head of state

heads of stateChief of Stateheads of states
The High Contracting Parties; referred to as either the official title of the head of state (but not including the personal name), e.g. His Majesty The King of X or His Excellency The President of Y, or alternatively in the form of "Government of Z"; are enumerated, and along with the full names and titles of their plenipotentiary representatives, and a boilerplate clause about how their representatives have communicated (or exchanged) their full powers (i.e., the official documents appointing them to act on behalf of their respective high contracting party) and found them in good or proper form.
Laws and ordinances are promulgated by two Cabinet members in unison signing "On Behalf of the Government" and the government—not the monarch—is the high contracting party with respect to international treaties.

Bilateral treaty

bilateral treatiesagreementbilateral
Bilateral treaties are concluded between two states or entities.
A bilateral treaty (also called a bipartite treaty) is a treaty strictly between two state parties.

Kyoto Protocol

Climate Change-Kyoto ProtocolKyoto AccordKyoto
Some examples: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established a framework for the development of binding greenhouse gas emission limits, while the Kyoto Protocol contained the specific provisions and regulations later agreed upon.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO 2 emissions have predominantly caused it.

Multilateral treaty

treatymultilateralmultilateral agreement
A multilateral treaty is concluded among several countries, establishing rights and obligations between each party and every other party.
A multilateral treaty is a treaty to which three or more sovereign states are parties.

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961Schedule ISingle Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICCPRInternational Covenant of Civil and Political RightsInternational Convention on Civil and Political Rights
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly.

Eschatocol

closing endorsementconclusion
The end of a treaty, the eschatocol (or closing protocol), is often signaled by a clause like "in witness whereof" or "in faith whereof", the parties have affixed their signatures, followed by the words "DONE at", then the site(s) of the treaty's execution and the date(s) of its execution.
Common in European medieval charters, they have been relegated to notarial acts, governmental acts, diplomatic treaties, certificates, and other formal documents.

Charter of the United Nations

United Nations CharterUN CharterCharter
For example, the Charter of the United Nations was "DONE at the city of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five". The United Nations Charter states that treaties must be registered with the UN to be invoked before it or enforced in its judiciary organ, the International Court of Justice.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.

Secret treaty

secret treatiessecretopen agreements
This was done to prevent the proliferation of secret treaties that occurred in the 19th and 20th century.
A secret treaty is a treaty (international agreement) in which the contracting state parties have agreed to conceal the treaty's existence or substance from other states and the public.

Memorandum of understanding

MoUmemorandum of agreementmemoranda of understanding
For example, within the United States, agreements between states are compacts and agreements between states and the federal government or between agencies of the government are memoranda of understanding.
In international relations, MoUs fall under the broad category of treaties and should be registered in the United Nations treaty collection.

Torture

torturedtorturingtorture device
These are limited to such universally accepted prohibitions as those against the aggressive use of force, genocide and other crimes against humanity, piracy, hostilities directed at civilian population, racial discrimination and apartheid, slavery and torture, meaning that no state can legally assume an obligation to commit or permit such acts.
The Rome Statute is the treaty that set up the International Criminal Court (ICC).

Coming into force

came into forceenactmentsentered into force
After their adoption, treaties as well as their amendments have to follow the official legal procedures of the United Nations, as applied by the Office of Legal Affairs, including signature, ratification and entry into force.
Coming into force or entry into force (also called commencement) is the process by which legislation, regulations, treaties and other legal instruments come to have legal force and effect.

Peremptory norm

jus cogensius cogensnorm
A treaty is null and void if it is in violation of a peremptory norm.
Unlike ordinary customary law, which has traditionally required consent and allows the alteration of its obligations between states through treaties, peremptory norms may not be violated by any state "through international treaties or local or special customs or even general customary rules not endowed with the same normative force".

Supremacy Clause

supreme law of the landU.S. Const. Art. VIsupreme law
The constitution does not have a supremacy clause with the same effects as the one in the US constitution, which is of interest to the discussion on the relation between treaties and legislation of the states of Brazil.
The Supremacy Clause of the Constitution of the United States (Article VI, Clause 2), establishes that the Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the “supreme Law of the Land”, and thus take priority over any conflicting state laws.

Genocide

genocidalexterminationgenocides
These are limited to such universally accepted prohibitions as those against the aggressive use of force, genocide and other crimes against humanity, piracy, hostilities directed at civilian population, racial discrimination and apartheid, slavery and torture, meaning that no state can legally assume an obligation to commit or permit such acts.
It is commonly accepted that, at least since World War II, genocide has been illegal under customary international law as a peremptory norm, as well as under conventional international law.

Piracy

piratepiratespirate ship
These are limited to such universally accepted prohibitions as those against the aggressive use of force, genocide and other crimes against humanity, piracy, hostilities directed at civilian population, racial discrimination and apartheid, slavery and torture, meaning that no state can legally assume an obligation to commit or permit such acts.
Between 1713 and 1714, a succession of peace treaties was signed which ended the War of the Spanish Succession.

Executive agreement

executive agreements
US law distinguishes what it calls "treaties" from "executive agreements", which are either "congressional-executive agreements" or "sole executive agreements".
An executive agreement is an agreement between the heads of government of two or more nations that has not been ratified by the legislature as treaties are ratified.

Treaty of Friendship

joint declaration of the "Special Partnership
A Treaty of Friendship, also known as a Friendship Treaty, is a common generic name for any treaty establishing close ties between countries.

International Court of Justice

World CourtICJInternational Court of Justice (ICJ)
The United Nations Charter states that treaties must be registered with the UN to be invoked before it or enforced in its judiciary organ, the International Court of Justice.

Supranational union

supranationalsupranationalismsupranational organisations
It is the only entity that provides for international popular elections, going beyond the level of political integration normally afforded by international treaties.