Treaty of 1818

Anglo-American Convention of 18181818London ConventionLondon Convention of 1818a treatyacquiredAnglo-American ConventionBritish Cession of 1818conventionConvention of 1818
The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States and the United Kingdom, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, is an international treaty signed in 1818 between the above parties.wikipedia
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Oregon Country

Oregonearly non-native explorersEuropean settlement
The treaty allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister district New Caledonia.
The Oregon Treaty of 1846 ended disputed joint occupancy pursuant to the Treaty of 1818 and established the British-American boundary at the 49th parallel (except Vancouver Island).

49th parallel north

49th parallel49° N49° north
The two nations agreed to a boundary line involving the 49th parallel north, in part because a straight-line boundary would be easier to survey than the pre-existing boundaries based on watersheds. The Oregon Treaty in 1846 permanently established the 49th parallel as the boundary between the United States and British North America to the Pacific Ocean.
This international border was specified in the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 and the Oregon Treaty of 1846, though survey markers placed in the 19th century cause the border to deviate from the 49th parallel by up to tens of meters.

Columbia District

Columbia DepartmentColumbiaColumbia Fur District
The treaty allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister district New Caledonia.
In the Treaty of 1818 between the U.S. and Britain, the two powers agreed that each had free and open access to the Oregon Country.

Hudson's Bay Company

Hudson’s Bay CompanyHBCHudson Bay Company
The treaty allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister district New Caledonia.
Although claims to the region were by agreement in abeyance, commercial operating rights were nominally shared by the United States and Britain through the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, but company policy, enforced via Chief Factor John McLoughlin of the company's Columbia District, was to discourage U.S. settlement of the territory.

Rupert's Land

Rupert’s LandPrince Rupert's LandRuperts Land
The British ceded all of Rupert's Land south of the 49th parallel and east of the Continental Divide, including all of the Red River Colony south of that latitude, while the United States ceded the northernmost edge of the Missouri Territory north of the 49th parallel.
The southern border west of Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains was the drainage divide between the Mississippi and Saskatchewan watersheds until the London Convention of 1818 substituted the 49th Parallel.

Missouri Territory

Territory of MissouriMissouriHistory of the Territory of Missouri
The British ceded all of Rupert's Land south of the 49th parallel and east of the Continental Divide, including all of the Red River Colony south of that latitude, while the United States ceded the northernmost edge of the Missouri Territory north of the 49th parallel.
The Anglo-American Convention of 1818 established the northern boundary of the Missouri Territory with the British territory of Rupert's Land at the 49th parallel north.

Northwestern point of the Lake of the Woods

Northwesternmost pointCanada–United States bordermost north-westerly point
This point was referred to in the Treaty of Paris in 1783 and in later treaties including the Treaty of 1818.

British North America

BritishNorth AmericaBritish North American
After the War of 1812, the Treaty of 1818 established the 49th parallel as the United States–British North America border from Rupert's Land west to the Rocky Mountains.

Minnesota

MNState of MinnesotaMinnesota, USA
Land west of the Mississippi was acquired with the Louisiana Purchase, though part of the Red River Valley was disputed until the Treaty of 1818.

James Monroe

MonroePresident MonroePresident James Monroe
Signed during the presidency of James Monroe, it resolved standing boundary issues between the two nations.
The Treaty of 1818, also with Great Britain, was concluded October 20, 1818, and fixed the present Canada–United States border from Minnesota to the Rocky Mountains at the 49th parallel.

Louisiana Purchase

LouisianaLouisiana TerritorySale of Louisiana
The western borders of the purchase were later settled by the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty with Spain, while the northern borders of the purchase were adjusted by the Treaty of 1818 with Britain.

New Caledonia (Canada)

New CaledoniaNew Caledonia DistrictNew Caledonia fur district
The treaty allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister district New Caledonia.
The signing of the Oregon Treaty in 1846 ended disputed joint occupation of areas west of the Rocky Mountains pursuant to the Treaty of 1818.

Rocky Mountains

RockiesRocky MountainRocky Mountain Region
By the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, which established the 49th parallel north as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the "Stony Mountains"; the UK and the USA agreed to what has since been described as "joint occupancy" of lands further west to the Pacific Ocean.

Northwest Angle

Angle InletAngle Inlet, MNNorthwest Angle 34C
In the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, the error regarding the Mississippi River was corrected by having the boundary continue due south from the northwest point of the lake, but only to the 49th parallel and then westward along it.

Rush–Bagot Treaty

Rush-Bagot TreatyRush-Bagot AgreementRush–Bagot Agreement
The Convention of 1818, along with the Rush–Bagot Treaty of 1817, marked the beginning of improved relations between the British Empire and its former colonies, and paved the way for more positive relations between the U.S. and Canada, notwithstanding that repelling U.S. invasion was a defense priority in Canada until 1928.
The treaty, and the separate Treaty of 1818, laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America.

Oregon Trail

OregonOregon National Historic TrailGreat Migration of 1843
The policy of discouraging settlement was undercut to some degree by the actions of John McLoughlin, Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver, who regularly provided relief and welcome to U.S. immigrants who had arrived at the post over the Oregon Trail.
"Joint occupation" of the region was formally established by the Anglo-American Convention of 1818.

Milk River (Alberta–Montana)

Milk RiverMilkMilk Rivers
However, in 1818 U.S. negotiators swapped a portion of the Milk River watershed that lay north of 49° north latitude, receiving in exchange a parcel of Red River of the North drainage that had previously been part of British North America.

Oregon Treaty

Oregon Treaty of 1846Treaty of WashingtonTreaty of Oregon
The Oregon Treaty in 1846 permanently established the 49th parallel as the boundary between the United States and British North America to the Pacific Ocean.
The Oregon Treaty is a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States that was signed on June 15, 1846, in Washington, D.C. The treaty was signed under the presidency of James K. Polk, the treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country; the area had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818.

John McLoughlin

Dr. John McLoughlinDr. McLoughlinDr. Jean-Baptiste/John McLoughlin
The policy of discouraging settlement was undercut to some degree by the actions of John McLoughlin, Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Vancouver, who regularly provided relief and welcome to U.S. immigrants who had arrived at the post over the Oregon Trail.
At the time, the region was under joint occupation of both the United States and Britain pursuant to the Treaty of 1818.

Richard Rush

Rush, RichardMr. RushRichard
The treaty was negotiated for the U.S. by Albert Gallatin, ambassador to France, and Richard Rush, minister to the UK; and for the UK by Frederick John Robinson, Treasurer of the Royal Navy and member of the privy council, and Henry Goulburn, an undersecretary of state.
His "gentlemanly" attitude was appreciated by the British, and he remained there for nearly eight years, proving singularly effective in negotiating a number of important treaties, including the Anglo-American Treaty of 1818.

Mississippi River

MississippiMississippi ValleyMississippi Basin
In the Treaty of 1818, the U.S. and Great Britain agreed to fix the border running from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains along the 49th parallel north.

Fort Vancouver

Fort Vancouver, WAFt. VancouverVancouver Barracks
The British-chartered Hudson's Bay Company, having previously established a trading network centered on Fort Vancouver on the lower Columbia River, with other forts in what is now eastern Washington and Idaho as well as on the Oregon Coast and in Puget Sound, undertook a harsh campaign to restrict encroachment by U.S. fur traders to the area.
The Treaty of 1818 made the resources of the vast region were to be "free and open" to citizens from either nation.

Webster–Ashburton Treaty

Webster-Ashburton TreatyMaine border disputenorth-eastern boundary dispute
The Anglo-American Convention of 1818 defined the boundary about Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains.

Adams–Onís Treaty

Adams-Onís TreatyAdams-Onis TreatyAdams–Onis Treaty
On 20 October 1818, the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 was signed setting the border between British North America and the United States east of the Continental Divide along the 49th parallel north and calling for joint Anglo-American occupancy west of the Great Divide.

Albert Gallatin

GallatinistAbraham Alfonse Albert GallatinGallatin
The treaty was negotiated for the U.S. by Albert Gallatin, ambassador to France, and Richard Rush, minister to the UK; and for the UK by Frederick John Robinson, Treasurer of the Royal Navy and member of the privy council, and Henry Goulburn, an undersecretary of state.
While serving as ambassador to France, he helped negotiate the Rush–Bagot Treaty and the Treaty of 1818, two treaties with Britain that settled several issues left over from the War of 1812 and established joint Anglo-American over Oregon Country.