Treaty of Alliance (1778)

Treaty of Alliance1778 Treaty of Alliancealliancetreaty1778 treatyalliance with FranceFrench AlliancetreatiesTreaty of Alliance with Franceallied with the Americans
The Treaty of Alliance with France or Franco-American Treaty was a defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised mutual military support in case fighting should break out between French and British forces, as the result of signing the previously concluded Treaty of Amity and Commerce.wikipedia
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American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
The Treaty of Alliance with France or Franco-American Treaty was a defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised mutual military support in case fighting should break out between French and British forces, as the result of signing the previously concluded Treaty of Amity and Commerce.
France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.

George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonGeneral George Washington
The Franco-American alliance would technically remain in effect until the 1800 Treaty of Mortefontaine, despite being annulled by the United States Congress in 1793 when George Washington gave his Neutrality Proclamation speech saying that America would stay neutral in the French Revolution. French involvement in the war would prove to be exceedingly important during the Siege of Yorktown when 10,800 French regulars and 29 French warships, under the command of the Comte de Rochambeau and Comte de Grasse respectively, joined forces with Gen.George Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette to obtain the surrender of Lord Cornwallis's Southern army, and effectively bringing an end to the fighting on the North American mainland for the remainder of the war.
In early 1778, the French responded to Burgoyne's defeat and entered into a Treaty of Alliance with the Americans.

Treaty of Amity and Commerce (United States–France)

Treaty of Amity and CommerceAmity and Commercecommerce
The Treaty of Alliance with France or Franco-American Treaty was a defensive alliance between France and the United States of America, formed in the midst of the American Revolutionary War, which promised mutual military support in case fighting should break out between French and British forces, as the result of signing the previously concluded Treaty of Amity and Commerce.
Its sister treaty, the Treaty of Alliance (as well as a separate and secret clause related to the future inclusion of Spain into the alliance) were signed immediately thereafter.

John Adams

AdamsJohnPresident John Adams
As a result, John Adams began drafting conditions for a possible commercial treaty between France and the future independent colonies of the United States, which declined the presence of French troops and any aspect of French authority in colonial affairs. The growing public sentiment against the treaty culminated during the Presidency of John Adams, in the official annulment of the treaty by the United States Congress on July 7, 1798 after France's refusal to receive American envoys, and normalize relations, during the XYZ Affair.
On April 1, the Boston arrived in Spain, where Adams learned that France had agreed to an alliance with the United States on February 6.

Anglo-French War (1778–1783)

Anglo-French WarAnglo-French War (1778–83)Antilles War
After the signing of the treaty French supplies of arms, ammunition, and uniforms proved vital for the Continental Army, while their actions in the Anglo French War of 1778-83 in the West Indies and elsewhere forced Britain to redeploy troops and naval units away from the North American colonies to secure their holdings.
In 1778, France signed a treaty of friendship with the United States.

Louis XVI of France

Louis XVIKing Louis XVIKing Louis XVI of France
Delegates of King Louis XVI of France and the Second Continental Congress, who represented the United States at this time, signed the two treaties along with a separate and secret clause dealing with future Spanish involvement, at the hôtel de Coislin (4, place de la Concorde) in Paris on February 6, 1778.
Early in 1778 he signed a formal Treaty of Alliance, and later that year France went to war with Britain.

Benjamin Franklin

Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
On September 25 the Continental congress ordered commissioners, led by Benjamin Franklin, to seek a treaty with France based upon Adams draft treaty that had later been formalized into a Model Treaty which sought the establishment of reciprocal trade relations with France but declined to mention any possible military assistance from the French government.
He is the only Founding Father who is a signatory of all four of the major documents of the founding of the United States: the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Alliance with France, the Treaty of Paris and the United States Constitution.

François Joseph Paul de Grasse

Comte de Grassede GrasseAdmiral de Grasse
French involvement in the war would prove to be exceedingly important during the Siege of Yorktown when 10,800 French regulars and 29 French warships, under the command of the Comte de Rochambeau and Comte de Grasse respectively, joined forces with Gen.George Washington and the Marquis de Lafayette to obtain the surrender of Lord Cornwallis's Southern army, and effectively bringing an end to the fighting on the North American mainland for the remainder of the war.
The Treaty of Alliance (1778) established the Franco-American alliance, and France entered the war on behalf of the rebels and against Great Britain.

Treaty of Aranjuez (1779)

Treaty of Aranjuez3rd Treaty of Aranjueza secret treaty
French entry into the war would lead to further escalation of the war when Spain entered the fight against Britain as France's ally, after the signing of the Treaty of Aranjuez on April 12, 1779, and again in December 1780 when Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic after seizing a Dutch merchant ship they claimed was carrying contraband to France during the Affair of Fielding and Bylandt.
In February 1778, France and the United States signed a Treaty of Alliance, in which France recognised US independence and provided military support.

Model Treaty

plan of treaties
On September 25 the Continental congress ordered commissioners, led by Benjamin Franklin, to seek a treaty with France based upon Adams draft treaty that had later been formalized into a Model Treaty which sought the establishment of reciprocal trade relations with France but declined to mention any possible military assistance from the French government.
Benjamin Franklin took the Model Treaty to Paris, and it was used as the starting point for negotiations with France, which ultimately resulted the signing of two treaties: an economic treaty, the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, and a treaty of military alliance, the Treaty of Alliance.

Convention of 1800

Treaty of MortefontaineConvention of 1800 (Treaty of Mortefontaine)peace treaty
The Franco-American alliance would technically remain in effect until the 1800 Treaty of Mortefontaine, despite being annulled by the United States Congress in 1793 when George Washington gave his Neutrality Proclamation speech saying that America would stay neutral in the French Revolution.
The Convention of 1800 or the Treaty of Mortefontaine between the United States of America and France ended the 1798–1800 Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war waged primarily in the Caribbean, and terminated the 1778 Treaty of Alliance.

Quasi-War

Quasi WarQuasi-War with Franceundeclared war
The waging of an undeclared war against France, known as the Quasi-War, by the Adams Administration in retaliation for French seizures of American naval vessels during the French Revolutionary Wars, effectively made the Treaty of Alliance a mockery, as it represented an official declaration of military alliance, maintained solely by the French government, between two nations who were unofficially at war with each other.
In March 1778, France signed a treaty of alliance with the rebelling colonists against Great Britain and had loaned the new Republic large sums of money.

George Washington's Farewell Address

Farewell AddressWashington's Farewell Address1796 ''Farewell Address
The alliance was further attacked in President Washington's Farewell Address, in which he declared that the United States was not obligated to honor the military provisions of the treaty, and furthermore warned Americans of the dangers of the same kind of permanent alliances that the United States was currently engaged in with France, as a result of the Treaty of Alliance.
The Republicans wanted the U.S. to honor the 1778 Treaty of Alliance and to aid France, while the Federalists favored an alliance with Britain.

XYZ Affair

failed diplomatic attemptsLucien HautevalM. Hauteval
The growing public sentiment against the treaty culminated during the Presidency of John Adams, in the official annulment of the treaty by the United States Congress on July 7, 1798 after France's refusal to receive American envoys, and normalize relations, during the XYZ Affair.
Congress nonetheless authorized the acquisition of twelve frigates, and made other appropriations to increase military readiness; it also, on July 7, 1798, voted to nullify the 1778 Treaty of Alliance with France, and two days later authorized attacks on French warships.

Second Continental Congress

Continental CongressCongressSecond
Delegates of King Louis XVI of France and the Second Continental Congress, who represented the United States at this time, signed the two treaties along with a separate and secret clause dealing with future Spanish involvement, at the hôtel de Coislin (4, place de la Concorde) in Paris on February 6, 1778.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
The Franco-American alliance would technically remain in effect until the 1800 Treaty of Mortefontaine, despite being annulled by the United States Congress in 1793 when George Washington gave his Neutrality Proclamation speech saying that America would stay neutral in the French Revolution.

Thirteen Colonies

American coloniescoloniescolonial
When the thirteen British colonies in America declared their independence from Great Britain in 1776, their most obvious potential ally was France, a long-time enemy of Britain and a colonial rival who had lost much of their lands in the Americas after the French and Indian War.

French and Indian War

French & Indian WarFrench and IndianSeven Years' War
When the thirteen British colonies in America declared their independence from Great Britain in 1776, their most obvious potential ally was France, a long-time enemy of Britain and a colonial rival who had lost much of their lands in the Americas after the French and Indian War.

Great Britain in the Seven Years' War

Great Britain in the Seven Years WarAnnus Mirabilis of 1759Annus Mirabilis
France's leadership had been alarmed by Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War which had shifted the European balance of power and had been planning for a war of revenge since the Treaty of Paris that had ended the conflict in 1763.

European balance of power

Great Powersbalance of power in EuropeEuropean power
France's leadership had been alarmed by Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War which had shifted the European balance of power and had been planning for a war of revenge since the Treaty of Paris that had ended the conflict in 1763.

Treaty of Paris (1763)

Treaty of Paris1763 Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris of 1763
France's leadership had been alarmed by Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War which had shifted the European balance of power and had been planning for a war of revenge since the Treaty of Paris that had ended the conflict in 1763.

Étienne François, duc de Choiseul

Duc de ChoiseulChoiseulDuke of Choiseul
The French foreign minister Choiseul had envisaged this taking place in alliance with Spain and involving a Franco-Spanish invasion of Britain.

Armada of 1779

attempted invasion of Britaininvasion crisis in 1779planned invasion that year
The French foreign minister Choiseul had envisaged this taking place in alliance with Spain and involving a Franco-Spanish invasion of Britain.

Falklands Crisis (1770)

Falklands CrisisFalkland Crisisdispute between Britain and Spain
Choiseul had been ready go to war in 1770 during the Falklands Crisis, but Louis XV had been alarmed by the British naval mobilization and instead dismissed Choiseul and backed down.

Louis XV of France

Louis XVKing Louis XVKing Louis XV of France
Choiseul had been ready go to war in 1770 during the Falklands Crisis, but Louis XV had been alarmed by the British naval mobilization and instead dismissed Choiseul and backed down.