Treaty of Turin (1696)

Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy
Duchy of Savoy ca 1700; Counties of Nice and Savoy now in modern France
Pinerolo: the recovery of the strategic town was a primary objective for Savoy.
Comte de Tessé, the French commander in Piedmont who helped negotiate the treaty
The wedding of Louis, Duke of Burgundy and Marie-Adélaïde, daughter of Victor Amadeus

The Treaty of Turin, signed on 29 August 1696 by the French King and the Duchy of Savoy, ended the latter's involvement in the Nine Years' War.

- Treaty of Turin (1696)

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Pinerolo

Town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Piedmont, northwestern Italy, 10 km southwest of Turin on the river Chisone.

The Sanctuary of Madonna delle Grazie.

France agreed to hand Pinerolo back to the house of Savoy under the Treaty of Turin (1696), with the conditions that its stronghold's fortifications be demolished and that Savoy withdraw from the League of Augsburg against Louis XIV.

Peace of Ryswick

Series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Rijswijk between 20 September and 30 October 1697.

Huis ter Nieuwburg, location for the negotiations
Charles II (1665–1700); his inheritance overshadowed negotiations.
Europe after the Treaty of Ryswick, c. 1700
The Needle of Rijswijk erected during 1792–1794

In the 1696 Treaty of Turin he made a separate peace with the Duchy of Savoy.

Marie Adélaïde of Savoy

The wife of Louis, Dauphin of France, Duke of Burgundy.

The Dauphine wearing Fleur-de-lis as Duchess of Burgundy, c. 1697
Bust of Marie Adelaide de Bourgogne by Coysevox. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
Marie Adélaïde, Duchess of Burgundy, by Pierre Gobert, 1710
The Duchess of Burgundy
Arms of Marie Adélaïde as Dauphine of France

Her betrothal to the Duke of Burgundy in June 1696 was part of the Treaty of Turin, signed on 29 August 1696.

Nicolas Catinat

French military commander and Marshal of France under Louis XIV.

L. Roger, Nicolas Catinat, Maréchal de France, National Gallery of Art
Catinat at the Battle of Marsaglia

His victories against Victor Amadeus of Savoy at the Battle of Staffarda in 1690, and the Battle of Marsaglia in 1693, were amongst his greatest achievements, ( Victor Amadeus II later abandoned the Allied coalition and concluded peace with King Louis by signing the Treaty of Turin on 29 August 1696).

War of the Spanish Succession

The struggle for control of the Spanish Empire between his heirs, Philip of Anjou and Archduke Charles of Austria.

Participants in the War of the Spanish Succession in 1703.
Charles II, 1665–1700, last Habsburg King of Spain
Proclamation of Philip of Anjou as Philip V of Spain, Versailles, 16 November 1700
France's central position required the Grand Alliance to attack on exterior lines.
An Anglo-Dutch squadron captures a Spanish treasure fleet, Vigo Bay October 1702.
Francis Rákóczi, leader of the 1703–1711 Hungarian revolt; funded by France, this was a major distraction for Austria.
Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy
Northern Italy; Milan, Savoy, and Mantua were the primary areas of conflict.
Low Countries; note the location of Prince-Bishopric of Liège (in pink). Red lines show the Pré carré, a double line of fortresses guarding the French border.
Peninsular Spain, showing Castile and Aragon
The West Indies; the huge profits associated with sugar production made this area highly significant.
Battle of Malplaquet 1709: an Allied victory, the losses shocked Europe and increased the desire for peace.
Battle of Denain, July 1712; defeat ended Austrian and Dutch hopes of improving their negotiating position.
The Treaty of Utrecht; Abraham Allard, 18th century
Western Europe in 1714, after the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt
The Royal Navy destroys a Spanish fleet off Sicily, Cape Passaro, August 1718.

During the Nine Years' War in 1690, Savoy joined the Grand Alliance before agreeing a separate peace with France in 1696.

René de Froulay de Tessé

French soldier and diplomat during the reign of Louis XIV and the 1715-1723 Regency.

Portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud
The facade of Heidelberg Castle, destroyed in 1689 and never rebuilt.

Starting in 1693, he acted as Louis' representative in secret negotiations with Victor Amadeus that led to the 1696 Treaty of Turin between France and Savoy.

Nine Years' War

Conflict between France and a European coalition which mainly included the Holy Roman Empire (led by the Habsburg monarchy), the Dutch Republic, England, Spain, Savoy and Portugal.

Siege of Namur, June 1692 by Jean-Baptiste Martin
Equestrian Portrait of Louis XIV (1638–1715) by René-Antoine Houasse. The Sun King was the most powerful monarch in Europe.
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I (1640–1705), artist unknown
William of Orange (1650–1702), portrayed here as King William III of England by Sir Godfrey Kneller.
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg (1620–1688). He was succeeded by his son, Frederick, who proved to be one of William of Orange's most loyal allies.
Louvois (1641–1691), Louis XIV's belligerent secretary of state at the height of his powers, by Pierre Mignard.
Max Emanuel (1662–1726) by Joseph Vivien.
Rhine campaign 1688–89. French forces cross the Rhine at Strasbourg and proceed to invest Philippsburg – the key to the middle Rhine – on 27 September 1688.
The formation of the Dutch fleet that sailed for England. With more than 450 ships, it was about 3 times the size of the Spanish Armada of 1588.
Jacobite risings in Ireland and Scotland 1689-1691
Godert de Ginkell, by Adriaen van der Werff. He commanded the Anglo-Dutch forces in Ireland after William III left for the continent
James II (1633–1701) c. 1690, artist unknown
Marshal Vauban (1633–1707), Louis XIV's greatest military engineer and one of his most trusted advisers
The Low Countries c. 1700: the principal theatre during the Nine Years' War
Battle of Fleurus, 1690
Siege of Mons 1691. While he never commanded a battle in the open field, Louis XIV attended many sieges (at a safe distance) until advancing age limited his activities.
North Italian campaign 1690–96. The territories of Victor Amadeus II, the Duke of Savoy, comprised the County of Nice, Duchy of Savoy and the Principality of Piedmont, which contained the capital city, Turin.
Menno van Coehoorn. Dutch military engineer and rival of Vauban
Battle of La Hogue, (1692) by Adriaen van Diest. The last act of the battle – French ships set on fire at La Hogue.
Catalan campaign 1689–1697. The Catalan front was the smallest of the Nine Years' War.
Bombardment of Dieppe, 1694
Siege of Namur (1695) by Jan van Huchtenburg. In the foreground William III, dressed in grey, confers with the Elector of Bavaria.
Duke of Noailles (1650–1708). Due to illness Vendôme replaced Noailles as French commander in Catalonia in 1695.
19th-century print showing Quebec batteries firing on William Phips' squadron during October 1690.
The Battle of Lagos June 1693; French victory and the capture of the Smyrna convoy was the most significant English mercantile loss of the war.
Map of European borders as they stood after the Treaty of Ryswick and just prior to Louis XIV's last great war, the War of the Spanish Succession.
Siege of Mainz 1689. Many of the larger fortified complexes had citadels. Once the town had been captured the garrison would withdraw into the citadel, which then had to be separately reduced.
Bombardment of Brussels 1695. Fortifications consisted of low-level, geometric earthworks; the ground plan was polygonal with a pentangle bastion at each salient angle, covered by ravelins, hornworks, crownworks, demi-lunes.
French warship Soleil Royal

The terms were formalised as the Treaty of Turin on 29 August 1696, by which provision Louis XIV also returned, intact, Montmélian, Nice, Villefranche, Susa, and other small towns.

Henri Arnaud (pastor)

Pastor of the Waldensians in Piedmont, who turned soldier in order to protect his co-religionists from persecution at the hands of Victor Amadeus II the Duke of Savoy.

Henri Arnaud

By a clause in the Treaty of Turin (1696), made public in 1698, Victor Amadeus again became hostile to the Waldensians, about 3,000 of whom, with Arnaud, found a shelter in Protestant countries, mainly in Württemberg, where Arnaud became the pastor of Dürrmenz-Schönenberg, northwest of Stuttgart, in 1699.

1696

January 21 – The Recoinage Act, passed by the Parliament of England to pull counterfeit silver coins out of circulation, becomes law.

January 27: HMS Sovereign of the Seas accidentally burns.
Capture of Azov (1696)
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
John III Sobieski

July 29 – King Louis XIV of France and Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, sign the Treaty of Turin, ending Savoy's involvement in the Nine Years' War.

France–Italy relations

France–Italy relations refers to international relations between the French Republic and the Italian Republic.

Italian Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni and French President Emmanuel Macron, 2017
Military alignments in 1914. When the war started Italy declared neutrality; in 1915 it switched and joined the Triple Entente (i.e. the Allies).
Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi and French President Emmanuel Macron, 2021
Victor Emmanuel II and Napoleon III
Embassy of France in Rome
Embassy of Italy in Paris
Consulate-General of Italy in Paris
Consulate-General of Italy in Lyon

In the early modern period, it was fixed in the Treaty of Turin of 1696.