Treaty of Waitangi

Te Tiriti o WaitangiTreatyThe Treaty of Waitangi1840New ZealandTiriti'' (Treaty) of WaitangiTreaty Grounds of WaitangiTreaty of Waitangi grievance settlement processtreaty partnershipWaitangi signing
The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.wikipedia
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Māori people

MāoriMaoriNew Zealand Māori
The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.
Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were largely amicable, and with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted.

New Zealand

NZLNZKiwi
The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs (rangatira) from the North Island of New Zealand.
In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.

William Hobson

Governor HobsonCaptain William HobsonHobson
It was intended by the British Crown to ensure that when Lieutenant Governor William Hobson subsequently made the declaration of British sovereignty over New Zealand in May 1840, the Māori people would not feel that their rights had been ignored.
He was a co-author of the Treaty of Waitangi.

Waitangi Day

New Zealand Day6 FebruaryFebruary 6
The New Zealand government established Waitangi Day as a national holiday in 1974; each year the holiday commemorates the date of the signing of the Treaty.
Waitangi Day, the national day of New Zealand, commemorates the signing on 6 February 1840 of the Treaty of Waitangi.

New Zealand Wars

New ZealandLand WarsMaori Wars
These discrepancies led to disagreements in the decades following the signing, eventually contributing to the New Zealand Wars of 1845 to 1872.
The 1840 English language version of the Treaty of Waitangi guaranteed that individual Māori iwi (tribes) should have undisturbed possession of their lands, forests, fisheries and other taonga (treasures) in return for becoming British subjects, selling land to the government only (the right of pre-emption) and surrendering sovereignty to the British Crown.

Waitangi Tribunal

The Waitangi Tribunal/Te Rōpū Whakamana i te TiritiTreaty of Waitangi claimTreaty of Waitangi Tribunal
In 1975 the new Zealand Parliament passed the Treaty of Waitangi Act, establishing the Waitangi Tribunal as a permanent commission of inquiry tasked with interpreting the Treaty, researching breaches of the Treaty by the British Crown or its agents, and suggesting means of redress.
It is charged with investigating and making recommendations on claims brought by Māori relating to actions or omissions of the Crown, in the period largely since 1840, that breach the promises made in the Treaty of Waitangi.

Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975

Treaty of Waitangi Actstatutory recognitionTreaty of Waitangi Amendment Act 1985
In 1975 the new Zealand Parliament passed the Treaty of Waitangi Act, establishing the Waitangi Tribunal as a permanent commission of inquiry tasked with interpreting the Treaty, researching breaches of the Treaty by the British Crown or its agents, and suggesting means of redress.
The Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 established the Waitangi Tribunal and gave the Treaty of Waitangi recognition in New Zealand law for the first time.

Waitangi, Northland

Waitangi WaitangiTe Tii Waitangi
Once it had been written and translated, it was first signed by Northern Māori leaders at Waitangi.
Waitangi is best known for being the location where the Treaty of Waitangi was first signed on February 6, 1840.

Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand

Declaration of IndependenceDeclaration of Independence of New ZealandHe Whakaputanga
In 1834 Busby drafted a document known as the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand which he and 35 northern Māori chiefs signed at Waitangi on 28 October 1835, establishing those chiefs as representatives of a proto-state under the title of the "United Tribes of New Zealand".
The Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand (He Wakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni), signed by a number of Māori chiefs in 1835, proclaimed the sovereign independence of New Zealand prior to the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840.

James Busby

In response, the British government sent James Busby in 1832 to be the British Resident in New Zealand.
James Busby (7 February 1802 – 15 July 1871) was appointed in 1833 as the British Resident in New Zealand, and became involved in drafting both the 1835 Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand and the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi.

New Zealand Day Act 1973

New Zealand Day Acta national holiday
The New Zealand government established Waitangi Day as a national holiday in 1974; each year the holiday commemorates the date of the signing of the Treaty.
The day had been known for some time as Waitangi Day and commemorated the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi.

Iwi

tribeMāori tribeMāori tribes
This trade was seen as mutually advantageous, and Māori tribes competed for access to the services of Europeans that had chosen to live on the islands because they brought goods and knowledge that were essential to the local iwi (the Māori word for the social unit often called "tribe" or "people").
(Note for example the 1997 Treaty of Waitangi settlement between the New Zealand Government and Ngāi Tahu, compensating that iwi for various losses of the rights guaranteed under the Treaty of Waitangi of 1840.) Iwi affairs can have a real impact on New Zealand politics and society.

New Zealand land-confiscations

confiscatedconfiscationland confiscations
During the second half of the 19th century Māori generally lost control of much of the land they had owned, sometimes through legitimate sale, but often due to unfair land-deals or through outright confiscations in the aftermath of the New Zealand Wars.
Submissions by the Crown in the 1999 Ngāti Awa investigation and a 1995 settlement with Waikato-Tainui included an acknowledgement that confiscations from that tribe were unjust and a breach of the Treaty of Waitangi.

New Zealand Company

New Zealand Association1825 New Zealand CompanyNew Zealand
The Treaty was written at a time when British colonists and the New Zealand Company (acting on behalf of large numbers of settlers and would-be settlers) were pressuring the British Crown to establish a colony in New Zealand, and when some Māori leaders had petitioned the British for protection against French incursions.
It vigorously attacked those it perceived as its opponents—chiefly the British Colonial Office, successive governors of New Zealand, the Church Missionary Society and prominent missionary the Rev. Henry Williams—and it stridently opposed the Treaty of Waitangi, which was an obstacle to the company obtaining the greatest possible amount of New Zealand land at the cheapest price.

New South Wales

NSWNew South Wales, AustraliaColony of New South Wales
On 15 June 1839 new Letters Patent were issued to expand the territory of New South Wales to include the entire territory of New Zealand, from latitude 34° South to 47° 10' South, and from longitude 166° 5' East to 179° East.
Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.

Paul Moon

Moon, Paul
After examining Colonial office documents and correspondence (both private and public) of those who developed the policies that led to the development of the Treaty, historian Paul Moon similarly argues that Treaty was not envisioned with deliberate intent to assert sovereignty over Māori, but that the Crown originally only intended to apply rule over British subjects living in the fledgling colony, and these rights were later expanded by subsequent governors through perceived necessity.
He is a prolific writer of New Zealand history and biography, specialising in Māori history, the Treaty of Waitangi and the early period of Crown rule.

Māori language

MāoriMaorite reo Māori
It is bilingual, with the Māori text translated from the English. Realising that a treaty in English could not be understood, debated or agreed to by Māori, Hobson instructed missionary Henry Williams and his son Edward Marsh Williams, who was more proficient in Te Reo, the Māori language, to translate the document, and this was done overnight on 4 February.
A 1994 ruling by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom held the New Zealand Government responsible under the Treaty of Waitangi (1840) for the preservation of the language.

Henry Williams (missionary)

Henry WilliamsArchdeacon Henry WilliamsHenry
Realising that a treaty in English could not be understood, debated or agreed to by Māori, Hobson instructed missionary Henry Williams and his son Edward Marsh Williams, who was more proficient in Te Reo, the Māori language, to translate the document, and this was done overnight on 4 February.
In 1840, Williams translated the Treaty of Waitangi into the Māori language, with some help from his son Edward.

William Colenso

ColensoColenso.(John) William Colenso
Māori chiefs (rangatira) then debated the Treaty for five hours, much of which was recorded and translated by the Paihia missionary station printer, William Colenso.
He attended the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi and later wrote an account of the events at Waitangi.

United Tribes of New Zealand

United Tribes Flagfirst national flag of New ZealandUnited Tribes of New Zealand flag
In 1834 Busby drafted a document known as the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand which he and 35 northern Māori chiefs signed at Waitangi on 28 October 1835, establishing those chiefs as representatives of a proto-state under the title of the "United Tribes of New Zealand".
In February 1840, a number of chiefs of the United Tribes convened at Waitangi to sign the Treaty of Waitangi.

Eruera Maihi Patuone

PatuoneEruera Patuone
Protestant Chiefs such as Hōne Heke, Pumuka, Te Wharerahi, Tāmati Wāka Nene and his brother Eruera Maihi Patuone were accepting of the Governor.
He was called Patuone when born but acquired the more full name when he was baptised by Archdeacon Henry Williams at Paihia on Sunday, 26 January 1840, just prior to the initial signing of the Treaty of Waitangi on 6 February.

Edward Marsh Williams

EdwardEdward Marsh
Realising that a treaty in English could not be understood, debated or agreed to by Māori, Hobson instructed missionary Henry Williams and his son Edward Marsh Williams, who was more proficient in Te Reo, the Māori language, to translate the document, and this was done overnight on 4 February.
At the age of 22 in 1840, when Captain William Hobson arrived in New Zealand, Edward — who had grown up among the Māori at Paihia, and as a result was fluent in Te Reo and understood Māori culture — helped his father translate the Treaty of Waitangi into Te Reo.

Moka Te Kainga-mataa

Moka 'Kainga-mataa
Moka 'Kainga-mataa' argued that all land unjustly purchased by Europeans should be returned.
He was distinguished in war and an intelligent participant in the Treaty of Waitangi process.

Bay of Islands

Bay of Islands, New ZealandIpipiri
Between 1795 and 1830 a steady flow of sealing and then whaling ships visited New Zealand, mainly stopping at the Bay of Islands for food supplies and recreation.
Many of the Māori settlements later played important roles in the development of New Zealand, such as Okiato (the nation's first capital), Waitangi (where the Treaty of Waitangi would later be signed) and Kerikeri, (which was an important departure point for inland Māori going to sea, and later site of the first permanent mission station in the country).

Akaroa

KarawekoAkaroa districtAkaroa, New Zealand
The Colonial Office was forced to accelerate its plans because of both the New Zealand Company's hurried dispatch of the Tory to New Zealand on 12 May 1839 to purchase land, and plans by French Captain Jean François L'Anglois to establish a French colony in Akaroa.
Concern over the complicity of John Stewart, amongst other lawlessness among Europeans in New Zealand, led to the appointment of an official British Resident James Busby to New Zealand in 1832 – the first step in the British involvement that led to the Treaty of Waitangi.