A report on Treaty of Westminster (1674)

The peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

- Treaty of Westminster (1674)

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The Battle of Texel, by Van de Velde the Younger

Third Anglo-Dutch War

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Naval conflict between the Dutch Republic and England, in alliance with France.

Naval conflict between the Dutch Republic and England, in alliance with France.

The Battle of Texel, by Van de Velde the Younger
Charles II of England; the war was driven by his desire for the French subsidies that offered financial freedom from Parliament
The 1667 Raid on the Medway severely damaged Charles' prestige
Agreements with Münster and Cologne allowed the French to bypass the Spanish Netherlands.
Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter, whose training compensated for numerical inferiority
The Dutch Republic, summer of 1672: French-held areas in black
Solebay, 7 June; the destruction of the Royal James, the English flagship
The murder of the De Witt brothers secured William's domestic position.
Orangist Gaspar Fagel, appointed Grand Pensionary in August 1672
The recapture of Coevorden on 30 December 1672 was a significant boost to Dutch morale.
Battle of Schooneveld by Van de Velde the Elder
Sir Edward Spragge, killed at the Battle of Texel
Anthony Ashley Cooper, who led opposition to the war
Mary of Modena; her marriage to James increased opposition to the war

Instead, Louis focused on taking the Spanish Netherlands, an objective as harmful to English interests as it was to Dutch; domestic opposition forced Charles to agree the Second Peace of Westminster in February 1674.

Painting of the capture of Coevorden by Dutch troops commanded by Carl von Rabenhaupt in December 1672

Franco-Dutch War

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Fought between France and the Dutch Republic, supported by its allies the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Brandenburg-Prussia and Denmark-Norway.

Fought between France and the Dutch Republic, supported by its allies the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Brandenburg-Prussia and Denmark-Norway.

Painting of the capture of Coevorden by Dutch troops commanded by Carl von Rabenhaupt in December 1672
The planned 1672 French offensive; the alliance with Münster and Cologne allowed them to bypass the Spanish Netherlands
Prince William of Orange, appointed Captain-General in February 1672; political conflict between his supporters and de Witt impacted Dutch preparations
Louvois, French Secretary of War, whose reforms were crucial to French success
Dutch position, summer of 1672: French-held areas in black
The Passage du Rhin
Lambert de Hondt (II): Louis XIV is offered the city keys of Utrecht, as its magistrates formally surrender on 30 June 1672
The three dozen fortresses captured by the invading forces
The murder of the De Witts
The Holland Water Line
Louis XIV at Maastricht, 1673
Dutch victory over an Anglo-French fleet at the Battle of Texel, August 1673 ensured their survival.
The Battle of Seneffe, 1674; a bloody but inconclusive battle
Turenne, killed at Salzbach in 1675; the Rhineland campaign of 1674–1675 is often viewed as his greatest achievement
Fort Bellegarde
Vauban's proposal for creating a Pré carré or 'duelling zone' on France's northern border, defended by a line of fortresses known as the Ceinture de fer (marked in red and green)
The Place des Victoires; built to celebrate French victory in 1678

They were joined by Lorraine and Denmark, while England made peace in February 1674.

New Netherland

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17th-century colonial province of the Dutch Republic that was located on what is now the East Coast of the United States.

17th-century colonial province of the Dutch Republic that was located on what is now the East Coast of the United States.

New Netherland map published by Nicolaes Visscher II (1649–1702)
Map based on Adriaen Block's 1614 expedition to New Netherland, featuring the first use of the name. It was created by Dutch cartographers in the (ca. 1590s–1720s) and Netherlandish cartography (ca. 1570s–1670s).
New Netherland map published by Nicolaes Visscher II (1649–1702)
Map of New Netherland and New England, with north to the right
The West India House in Amsterdam, headquarters of the Dutch West India Company from 1623 to 1647
The storehouse of the Dutch West India Company in Amsterdam, built in 1642, became the headquarters of the board in 1647 because of financial difficulties after the loss of Dutch Brazil.
Map showing the area claimed by the Dutch in North-America and several Dutch settlements, against modern state boundaries
Map (c. 1639), Manhattan situated on the North River (North arrow pointing to the right)
St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, site of Stuyvesant's grave
Nicolaes Visscher I (1618–1679), Novi Belgii Novæque Angliæ, reprint of 1685 which is not a completely correct representation of the situation at the time. The border with New England had been adjusted to 50 mi west of the Fresh River, while the Lange Eylandt towns west of Oyster Bay were under Dutch jurisdiction.
Image of " " made in 1664, the year that it was surrendered to English forces under Richard Nicolls
The original settlement has grown into the largest metropolis in the United States, seen here in 2006
The Prinsenvlag or "Prince's Flag", featuring the blue, white, and orange of some flags in the region
The Noort Rivier was one of the three main rivers in New Netherland.

In 1673, the Dutch retook the area but relinquished it under the Treaty of Westminster (1674) that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War the next year.

Portrait by Godfrey Kneller, 1690

William III of England

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The sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from the 1670s, and King of England, Ireland, and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

The sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from the 1670s, and King of England, Ireland, and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

Portrait by Godfrey Kneller, 1690
William's parents, William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary, Princess Royal, 1647
The young prince portrayed by Jan Davidsz de Heem and Jan Vermeer van Utrecht within a flower garland filled with symbols of the House of Orange-Nassau, c. 1660
Johan de Witt took over William's education in 1666.
Gaspar Fagel replaced De Witt as grand pensionary, and was more friendly to William's interests.
Equestrian portrait by Johannes Voorhout
Recapture of Naarden by William of Orange in 1673
William married his first cousin, the future Queen Mary II, in 1677.
Portrait of William, aged 27, in the manner of Willem Wissing after a prototype by Sir Peter Lely
The Arrival of William III by Sir James Thornhill. William landed in England on 5 November (Guy Fawkes day), a day already special in the Protestant calendar.
Portrait attributed to Thomas Murray, c. 1690
Engraving of William III and Mary II, 1703
Battle of the Boyne between James II and William III, 12 July 1690, Jan van Huchtenburg
Silver Crown coin, 1695. The Latin inscription is (obverse) GVLIELMVS III DEI GRA[TIA] (reverse) MAG[NAE] BR[ITANNIAE], FRA[NCIAE], ET HIB[ERNIAE] REX 1695. English: "William III, By the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, 1695." The reverse shows the arms, clockwise from top, of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, centred on William's personal arms of the House of Orange-Nassau.
William III painted in the 1690s by Godfried Schalcken
Engraving from 1695 showing the Lord Justices who administered the kingdom while William was on campaign
Louis XIV of France, William's lifelong enemy
Statue of William III formerly located on College Green, Dublin. Erected in 1701, it was destroyed by the IRA in 1928.
Joint monogram of William and Mary carved onto Hampton Court Palace

Although Louis took Maastricht and William's attack against Charleroi failed, Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter defeated the Anglo-French fleet three times, forcing Charles to end England's involvement by the Treaty of Westminster; after 1673, France slowly withdrew from Dutch territory (with the exception of Maastricht), while making gains elsewhere.

Portrait of Louis XIV (Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701)

Louis XIV

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King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715.

King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715.

Portrait of Louis XIV (Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701)
Louis XIV as a young child, unknown painter
Baptismal certificate, 1638
Louis XIV in 1643, just before becoming king, by Claude Deruet
Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
1655 portrait of Louis, the Victor of the Fronde, portrayed as the god Jupiter
Royal Monogram
Engraving of Louis XIV
Louis and his family portrayed as Roman gods in a 1670 painting by Jean Nocret. L to R: Louis' aunt, Henriette-Marie; his brother, Philippe, duc d'Orléans; the Duke's daughter, Marie Louise d'Orléans, and wife, Henriette-Anne Stuart; the Queen-mother, Anne of Austria; three daughters of Gaston d'Orléans; Louis XIV; the Dauphin Louis; Queen Marie-Thérèse; la Grande Mademoiselle.
Louis XIV in 1670, engraved portrait by Robert Nanteuil
The future Philip V being introduced as king of Spain by his grandfather, Louis XIV
Louis XIV crosses the Lower Rhine at Lobith on 12 June 1672; Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Louis XIV, 1670, by Claude Lefèbvre
The Persian embassy to Louis XIV sent by Sultan Husayn in 1715. Ambassade de Perse auprès de Louis XIV, studio of Antoine Coypel.
Siamese embassy of King Narai to Louis XIV in 1686, led by Kosa Pan. Engraving by Nicolas Larmessin.
Louis receiving the Doge of Genoa at Versailles on 15 May 1685, following the Bombardment of Genoa. (Reparation faite à Louis XIV par le Doge de Gênes. 15 mai 1685 by Claude Guy Halle, Versailles.)
Louis XIV
Louis XIV in 1685, the year he revoked the Edict of Nantes
Protestant peasants rebelled against the officially sanctioned dragonnades (conversions enforced by dragoons, labeled "missionaries in boots") that followed the Edict of Fontainebleau.
Battle of Fleurus, 1690
Louis in 1690
Louis XIV at the Siege of Namur (1692)
Marshal de Luxembourg
Philip V of Spain
Louis in 1701
The Franco-Spanish army led by the Duke of Berwick defeated decisively the Alliance forces of Portugal, England, and the Dutch Republic at the Battle of Almansa.
The Battle of Ramillies between the French and the English, 23 May 1706
Map of France after the death of Louis XIV
Dual Cypher of King Louis XIV & Queen Marie Thérèse
Louis XIV encouraged Catholic missions through the creation of the Paris Foreign Missions Society
Painting from 1667 depicting Louis as patron of the fine arts
The Cour royale and the Cour de marbre at Versailles
Bust of Louis XIV by Gianlorenzo Bernini
Bronze bust of Louis XIV. Circa 1660, by an unknown artist. From Paris, France. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Le roi gouverne par lui-même, modello for the central panel of the ceiling of the Hall of Mirrors ca. 1680 by Le Brun, (1619–1690)
Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles
Louis XIV (seated) with his son le Grand Dauphin (to the left), his grandson Louis, Duke of Burgundy (to the right), his great-grandson Louis Duke of Anjou, and Madame de Ventadour, Anjou's governess, who commissioned this painting; busts of Henry IV and Louis XIII are in the background.
Territorial expansion of France under Louis XIV (1643–1715) is depicted in orange.
Royal procession passing the Pont-Neuf under Louis XIV

The French alliance was deeply unpopular in England, who made peace with the Dutch in the February 1674 Treaty of Westminster.

De Ruyter in 1667, by Ferdinand Bol (National Maritime Museum - another autograph version is now in the Rijksmuseum)

Michiel de Ruyter

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Dutch admiral.

Dutch admiral.

De Ruyter in 1667, by Ferdinand Bol (National Maritime Museum - another autograph version is now in the Rijksmuseum)
De Ruyter c. 1654
The Dutch fleet under de Ruyter lies at anchor before the Algiers during the peace negotiations, 1662
Battle council on the Zeven Provinciën, 10 June 1666 by Van de Velde the younger
Four Days' Battle of 1 to 4 June 1666
De Ruyter and De Witt's embarkment at Texel in 1667, by Eugène Isabey
De Ruyter, c. 1675
The Dutch naval victory over an Anglo-French fleet at the Battle of Texel, August 1673 was a key moment in ensuring Dutch survival.
Battle of Augusta in April 1676
De Ruyter statue in Vlissingen

After relatively brief negotiations, the Treaty of Westminster ending the war was ratified in March 1674.

Charles II

Secret Treaty of Dover

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Treaty between England and France signed at Dover on 1 June 1670.

Treaty between England and France signed at Dover on 1 June 1670.

Charles II
Henrietta, Charles II's youngest sister, assisted in the negotiations that led to the Secret Treaty of Dover (26 May 1670).

In 1674, largely because of the pressure put upon Charles by Parliament, England signed the Treaty of Westminster: this largely restored the pre-war status quo and ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

The Castello Plan, a 1660 map of New Amsterdam (the top right corner is roughly north). The fort gave The Battery its name, the large street going from the fort past the wall became Broadway, and the city wall (right) gave Wall Street its name.

New Amsterdam

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17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.

17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.

The Castello Plan, a 1660 map of New Amsterdam (the top right corner is roughly north). The fort gave The Battery its name, the large street going from the fort past the wall became Broadway, and the city wall (right) gave Wall Street its name.
The Rigging House, 120 William St., in 1846; the last remaining building of Dutch New Amsterdam, it was a Methodist church in the 1760s, then a secular building again before its destruction in the mid-19th century.
1882 depiction of the ship Mayflower sailing from England to America in 1620, in Plymouth Harbor
1626 letter in Dutch by Pieter Schaghen stating the purchase of Manhattan for 60 gulden.
A map of the Hudson River Valley c. 1635 (north is to the right)
The First Slave Auction at New Amsterdam in 1655, by Howard Pyle
New Amsterdam in 1664 (looking approximately due north)
The Fall of New Amsterdam
Redraft of the Castello Plan, drawn in 1916
Depiction of the wall of New Amsterdam on a tile in the Wall Street subway station
The 1954 unveiling of a stained-glass depiction of Peter Stuyvesant in Butler Library at Columbia University. It commemorated the 300th anniversary of the founding of New Amsterdam, though it was actually dedicated on its 329th anniversary according to the date on the Seal of New York City, or on the 301st anniversary of the city receiving municipal rights.
The Wyckoff Farm in Flatbush, Brooklyn. Some of its construction still dates from the Dutch period of what is currently New York City.
13–15 South William Street, constructed in the Dutch Colonial Revival architecture evoking New Amsterdam

However, after the signing of the Treaty of Westminster in November 1674, both the Dutch territories were relinquished to the English.

Dutch East India Company

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Chartered company established in 1602, when the States General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out trade activities in Asia.

Chartered company established in 1602, when the States General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out trade activities in Asia.

The "United East India Company", or "United East Indies Company" (also known by the abbreviation "VOC" in Dutch) was the brainchild of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, the leading statesman of the Dutch Republic.
Amsterdam VOC HQ
Replica of the VOC ship Duyfken under sail
Founded in 1602, the Dutch East India Company (VOC), started off as a spice trader. In the same year, the VOC undertook the world's first recorded IPO. "Going public" enabled the company to raise the vast sum of 6.5 million guilders quickly. The VOC's institutional innovations and business practices laid the foundations for the rise of modern-day global corporations and capital markets that now dominate the world's economic systems.
Japanese export porcelain plate (Arita ware) with the VOC's monogram logo
In terms of creating and sustaining an effective corporate identity (or corporate culture), the United East India Company (VOC) was a successful early pioneer at the dawn of modern capitalism.
17th century plaque to Dutch East India Company (VOC), Hoorn
The logo of the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC
VOC headquarters in Amsterdam
Return of the second Asia expedition of Jacob van Neck in 1599 by Cornelis Vroom
Mughal Bengal's baghlah was a type of ship widely used by Dutch traders in the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the Malacca Straits and the South China Sea
Reproduction of a map of the city of Batavia c.1627, collection Tropenmuseum
Dutch Batavia in 1681, built in what is now North Jakarta
The Isle of Amboina, a 17th-century print, probably English
Graves of Dutch dignitaries in the ruined St. Paul's Church, Malacca, in the former Dutch Malacca
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal. Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Dutch settlement in Bengal Subah.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A print of the 1740 Batavia massacre
The Oost-Indisch Huis (Reinier Vinkeles, 1768)
A bond from the Dutch East India Company (VOC), dating from 7 November 1623. The VOC was the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. The VOC was also the first company to use a fully-fledged capital market (including the bond market and the stock market) as a crucial channel to raise medium-term and long-term funds.
Various VOC soldier uniforms, c.1783
Both sides of a duit, a coin minted in 1735 by the VOC
Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima, Nagasaki (1995)
Ground-plan of the Dutch trade-post on the island Dejima at Nagasaki. An imagined bird's-eye view of Dejima's layout and structures (copied from a woodblock print by Toshimaya Bunjiemon of 1780).
Overview of Fort Zeelandia (Fort Anping) in Tainan, Taiwan, painted around 1635 (National Bureau of Archives, The Hague)
The Dutch Square in Malacca, with Christ Church (centre) and the Stadthuys (right)
Gateway to the Castle of Good Hope, a bastion fort built by the VOC in the 17th century
One of the oldest known stock certificates, issued by the VOC Chamber of Enkhuizen, dated 9 September 1606.  The VOC was the first recorded joint-stock company to get a fixed capital stock. The VOC was also the first publicly listed company ever to pay regular dividends. The VOC was possibly in fact the first ever blue-chip stock. In Robert Shiller's words, the VOC was "the first real important stock" in the history of finance.
A 17th-century engraving depicting the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Amsterdam's old bourse, a.k.a. Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser in Dutch), built by Hendrick de Keyser (c. 1612). The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser), launched by the Dutch East India Company in the early 1600s, was the world's first official (formal) stock exchange when it began trading the VOC's freely transferable securities, including bonds and shares of stock.
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser) by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The process of buying and selling the VOC's shares, on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, became the basis of the world's first official (formal) stock market, a milestone in the history of capitalism.
Crowd gathering on Wall Street (New York City) after the 1929 crash. The 1929 Wall Street Crash is often considered one of the worst stock market crashes in history. For better or worse, the VOC-created quasi-casino stock market system has profoundly influenced the evolution of the global economy since the Dutch Golden Age.
The Dam Square in Amsterdam, by Gerrit Adriaensz Berckheyde, c. 1660. In the picture of the centre of highly cosmopolitan and tolerant Amsterdam, Muslim/Oriental figures (possibly Ottoman or Moroccan merchants) are shown negotiating. While the VOC was a major force behind the economic miracle of the Dutch Republic in the 17th-century, the VOC's institutional innovations played a decisive role in the rise of Amsterdam as the first modern model of a (global) international financial centre.
The shipyard of the United East India Company (VOC) in Amsterdam (1726 engraving by Joseph Mulder). The shipbuilding district of Zaan, near Amsterdam, became one of the world's earliest known industrialized areas, with around 900 wind-powered sawmills at the end of the 17th century. By the early seventeenth century Dutch shipyards were producing a large number of ships to a standard design, allowing extensive division of labour, a specialization which further reduced unit costs.
Jan Vermeer's View of Delft (ca. 1660–61). During the Dutch Golden Age, the VOC significantly influenced Delft's economy, both directly and indirectly.
A replica of the VOC's Halve Maen (captained by Henry Hudson, an Englishman in the service of the Dutch Republic) passes modern-day lower Manhattan, where the original ship would have sailed while investigating New York harbor
In the Age of Sail, the Brouwer Route, devised by VOC navigator Hendrik Brouwer in 1611, greatly reduced the voyage between Cape of Good Hope (Dutch Cape Colony) to Java (Dutch East Indies) from almost 12 months to about 6 months, compared to the previous Arab and Portuguese monsoon route. The Brouwer Route played a major role in the European discovery of the west coast of Australia.
A typical map from the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. Australasia during the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (c. 1590s–1720s): including Nova Guinea (New Guinea), Nova Hollandia (mainland Australia), Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), and Nova Zeelandia (New Zealand).
Australia (Nova Hollandia) was the last human-inhabited continent to be explored and mapped (by non-natives). The Dutch were the first to undisputedly explore and map Australia's coastline. In the 17th century, the VOC's navigators and explorers charted almost three-quarters of the Australian coastline, except the east coast.
Detail from a 1657 map by Jan Janssonius, showing the western coastline of Nova Zeelandia
The VOC's economic activity in Mauritius largely contributed to the extinction of the dodo, a flightless bird that was endemic to the island. The first recorded mention of the dodo was by Dutch navigators in the late 1590s.
Natives of Arakan sell slaves to the Dutch East India Company, c.1663 CE.
Charles Davidson Bell's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, the founder of Cape Town, arriving in Table Bay in 1652
The statue of Willem de Vlamingh with the Hartog Plate, Vlieland
Monument to the "Tsar-Carpenter" Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great) in St. Petersburg, Russia. In order to learn more about the 17th-century Dutch maritime power, Tsar Peter I came to work incognito as a ship's carpenter at the VOC's shipyards in Amsterdam and Zaandam/Saardam, for a period of four months (1697).
The Flying Dutchman by Albert Pinkham Ryder, c. 1887 (Smithsonian American Art Museum). The legend of the Flying Dutchman is likely to have originated from the 17th-century golden age of the VOC.
Cape Dutch style-influenced eclectic building of the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Swellendam. The Cape Dutch architecture, along with Afrikaans language and Afrikaans literature, is among the lasting legacy of the VOC-era Afrikaans culture in South Africa.
Black, green, pink, and white peppercorns. In terms of spice trade, the VOC was an early pioneering model of the global supply chain in its modern sense. Dutch word "peperduur" – which literally translated as "pepper expensive" or "as expensive as pepper" – is an expression for something that is very costly.
VOC Trade Cloth, 1675–1725, with Mughal tent hanging / summer carpet motif. Made in India for the Indonesian market. Fine textiles from India were a popular luxury import into Indonesia, and some still survive as treasured heirlooms.
The arrival of King Charles II of England in Rotterdam, 24 May 1660 by Lieve Verschuier. King Charles II of England sailed from Breda to Delft in May 1660 in a yacht owned by the VOC. HMY Mary and HMY Bezan (both were built by the VOC) were given to Charles II, on the restoration of the monarchy, as part of the Dutch Gift.
Johan Nieuhof's An embassy from the East-India Company of the United Provinces (1665).
The cover of the Hortus Malabaricus by Hendrik Adriaan van Reede tot Drakenstein.<ref>Manilal, K. S. (1984), 'Hortus Malabaricus and the Ethnoiatrical Knowledge of Ancient Malabar,'. Ancient Science of Life 4(2): 96–99</ref><ref>Manilal, K.S.: Hortus Malabaricus and the Socio-Cultural Heritage of India. (Calicut: Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy, 2012)</ref><ref>Dharmapalan, Biju (2012), 'Hortus Malabaricus: Celebrating the Tricentennial of a Botanic Epic,'. SR 49(10): 26–28</ref><ref>Manilal, K. S. (2005), 'Hortus Malabaricus, a book on the plants of Malabar, and its impact on the religious of Christianity and Hinduism in the 17th century Kerala,'. Indian Journal of Botanical Research 1(1): 13–28</ref>
Title page of Rumphius's Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750)
Title page of Hortus Cliffortianus (1737). The work was a collaboration between Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné) and Georg Dionysius Ehret, financed by George Clifford III, one of the directors of the VOC.
Title page of Musa Cliffortiana (1736), Carl Linnaeus's first botanical monograph.
Carl von Linné (Carl Linnaeus) lived and studied for three years, from 1735 until 1738, in the Dutch Republic – a seminal period in his life and career (see articles Herman Boerhaave, Johannes Burman, Engelbert Kaempfer, Georg Eberhard Rumphius, Carl Peter Thunberg, George Clifford III and Hartekamp). VOC people's scientific contributions had a considerable influence on his work.<ref>Heniger, J.: Hendrik Adriaan van Reed tot Drakestein (1636–1691) and Hortus Malabaricus: A Contribution to the History of Dutch Colonial Botany. (Rotterdam: A.A.Balkema, 1986). Heniger (1986): "Allure by the fame of Dutch botany, the young Linnaeus here spent some years, 1735–1738, to complete his schooling."</ref><ref>Skott, Christina (2010), 'The VOC and Swedish Natural History: The Transmission of Scientific Knowledge in the Eighteenth Century,'; in Siegfried Huigen, Jan L. de Jong & Elmer Kolfin (eds.), The Dutch Trading Companies as Knowledge Networks. (Brill, 2010), pp. 361–392</ref><ref>Thijsse, Gerard (2018), 'A Contribution to the History of the Herbaria of George Clifford III (1685–1760),'. Archives of Natural History 45(1): 134–148. {{doi|10.3366/anh.2018.0489}}</ref><ref>Barth, Nadine; van Andel, Tinde (2018), 'Paul Hermann's Ceylon Herbarium (1672–1679) at Leiden, the Netherlands,'. Taxon 67(5): 977–988</ref><ref>Jarvis, C.E. (2019), 'Georg Rumphius' Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750) as a source of information on Indonesian plants for Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778),'. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 71: 87–107</ref>
Swedish naturalist Carl Peter Thunberg was a VOC physician and an apostle of Linnaeus.
With the support of Governor of the VOC-rule Dutch Cape Colony Ryk Tulbagh, French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille studied the stars of the southern hemisphere from 1750 until 1754 from Cape of Good Hope, when he was said to have observed more than 10,000 stars using a {{convert|0.5|in|mm}} refracting telescope.<ref name="Wisconsin-Madison">{{cite web|url=http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/extra/Lacaille.html|title=Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713–1762)|website=Department of Astronomy. University of Wisconsin-Madison|access-date=1 August 2016}}</ref> were newly created in 1763 by Lacaille appearing in his star catalogue, published in 1756.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/lacaille.htm |title=Lacaille's southern planisphere |author=Ian Ridpath}}</ref>
Black swans on the shore of the Swan River (Western Australia), with the Perth skyline in the background. The thousand-year-old conclusion "all swans are white" was disproved by the VOC navigator Willem de Vlamingh's 1697 discovery.
Hansken, a young female Asian elephant from Dutch Ceylon, was brought to Amsterdam in 1637, aboard a VOC ship. Rembrandt's Hansken drawing is believed to be an early portrait of one of the first Asian elephants described by science.
Rembrandt's self-portrait as an oriental potentate with a kris/keris, a Javanese blade weapon from the VOC era (etching, c. 1634). Also, he was one of the first known western printmakers to extensively use (the VOC-imported) Japanese paper. It's important to note that some major figures of Dutch Golden Age art like Rembrandt and Vermeer never went abroad during their lifetime. More than just a for-profit corporation of the early modern world, the VOC was instrumental in 'bringing' the East (Orient) to the West (Occident),<ref>Seneviratne, Nadeera (2010), 'Globalising Hansken: An Elephant in The Netherlands,'; in Leelananda Prematilleke (ed.), Abhinandanamālā: Nandana Chutiwongs Felicitation Volume. (Bangkok: SPAFA Regional Centre of Archaeology and Fine Arts, 2010), pp. 259–273</ref><ref>Kim, Myung-Eun; Bae, Soo-Jeong (2015), 'A research on the exchange of costume culture between Netherlands and Japan through 17th–18th century Dutch East India Company,'. The Korea Society of Costume – Journal of the Korean Society of Costume 65(4): 109–123</ref><ref>Kim, Myung-Eun; Bae, Soo-Jeong (2015), 'A Study on Orientalism in the Paintings of Delft School in 17th Century Netherlands,'. The Korea Society of Costume – Journal of the Korean Society of Costume 65(8): 136–150</ref> <ref>Schrader, Stephanie; et al. (eds.): Rembrandt and the Inspiration of India. (Los Angeles, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2018) {{ISBN|978-1-60606-552-5}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Rembrandt and the Inspiration of India (catalogue)|url=http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/rembrandt_india/downloads/rembrandt_india_checklist.pdf|access-date=18 October 2019}}</ref> and vice versa.<ref>Sugita, Genpaku: Rangaku Kotohajime: Dawn of Western Science in Japan. Translated from the Japanese by Matsumoto Ryozo and Kiyooka Eiichi. (Tokyo: Hokuseido Press, 1968)</ref><ref>Goodman, Grant K.: Dutch Impact on Japan, 1640–1853. (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967)</ref><ref>Nagazumi, Yōko (ed.): Large and Broad: The Dutch Impact on Early Modern Asia. Essays in Honor of Leonard Blussé. (Tokyo: Toyo Bunko, 2010)</ref><ref>North, Michael; Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta (eds.): Mediating Netherlandish Art and Material Culture in Asia. (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2014)</ref>
Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar, by Dutch Golden Age painter Willem Kalf (c. 1660s). 17th-century Chinese export porcelain wares (imported by the VOC) are often depicted in many Dutch Golden Age genre and still-life paintings.
Shop window display of Delftware in the market place, Delft. East Asian–inspired Delftware, a lasting cultural and economic legacy of the VOC era.
Blaeu's Atlas Maior (1662–1672), a monumental multi-volume world atlas from the Golden Age of Dutch/Netherlandish cartography (c. 1570s–1670s) and a widely recognized masterpiece in the history of mapmaking. Willem Blaeu and his son Joan Blaeu were both official cartographers to the VOC.
Regions of Oceania (including Australasia, Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia). "The Island Continent" Australia was the last human-inhabited continent to be largely known to the civilized world. The VOC's navigators were the first non-natives to undisputedly discover, explore and chart coastlines of Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Tonga, and Fiji.
Abel Tasman's routes of the first and second voyage
Wall of Fort Zeelandia/Fort Anping, Tainan (Taiwan)
The Castle of Good Hope (Kasteel de Goede Hoop in Dutch), Cape Town, South Africa
The restored conference room of the {{ill|Heeren XVII|nl|Heren XVII}} (the VOC's board of directors) in the East Indies House/Oost-Indisch Huis, Amsterdam
A replica of the VOC vessel Batavia (1620–29)
19th-century illustration Halve Maen (Half Moon) in the Hudson River in 1609
Anonymous painting with Table Mountain in the background, 1762
Dutch church at Batavia, Dutch East Indies, 1682
A naval cannon (Dejima, Nagasaki, Japan). The letters "VOC" are the monogram of the "Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie" and the letter "A" represents the "Amsterdam" Chamber of the company.
The Seri Rambai at Fort Cornwallis, George Town, Penang, Malaysia
Aerial view of Galle Fort (Galle) – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Sri Lanka
Malacca City (Malacca) – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Malaysia
Sword of the East India Company, featuring the V.O.C. monogram of the guard. On display at the Musée de l'Armée in Paris.
VOC ships in Chittagong or Arakan.
City hall of Batavia in 1682 CE.
Frontispiece from Voyage dans l'intérieur de l'Afrique by François Levaillant
First Flag of the Dutch East India Company
Second Flag of the Dutch East India Company, adopted with red stripe around 1630 or 1663 and beyond, for the purpose of better visibility at sea against a light sky
Flag of the Amsterdam Chamber of the Dutch East Indies Company
Later flag of the Dutch East Indies, after Dutch East India Company was dissolved
Late 18th-century plate in European style, with Dutch/VOC ships, Canton porcelain, painted there on a "blank" from Jingdezhen.
Purchase Contract signed July 5, 1797, between 'Committee for the Affairs of East India Trade and Property' (on behalf of the Batavian Republic) and De Coninck Firm, notarised by Jan Harmsen. Since the VOC had incurred debts of millions, its Indian merchandise in Batavia was sold to the firm. The VOC was unable to send its ships; the firm itself was responsible for collecting the merchandise from Batavia. The merchandise included spices (Nutmeg, Cloves, Black and Brown pepper), dyes (Indigo, Sappan wood, Caliatour wood), Coffee, and Powdered sugar.
Kopi luwak, coffee seeds from faeces of palm civet, Lampung, Indonesia. Coffee cultivation in Indonesia began in the late 1600s and early 1700s, in the VOC period. Indonesia was the fourth-largest producer of coffee in the world in 2014.

The Dutch later re-captured Manhattan, but returned it along with the colony of New Netherland in the Treaty of Westminster (1674) ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

Modern-day view of Ronas Voe

Battle of Ronas Voe

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Naval engagement between the English Royal Navy and the Dutch East India ship Wapen van Rotterdam on 14 March 1674 in Ronas Voe, Shetland as part of the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

Naval engagement between the English Royal Navy and the Dutch East India ship Wapen van Rotterdam on 14 March 1674 in Ronas Voe, Shetland as part of the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

Modern-day view of Ronas Voe
An English language letter dated 24 November 1673, taken from aboard Wapen van Rotterdam, the first part of which explains the situation of the war which the ship may have been unfamiliar with upon their return from Batavia. It gives permission to the ship's crew to "use all hoſtilitie and dammage to French and Engliſh."
HMS Newcastle, one of the English men-of-war sent to capture Wapen van Rotterdam. Drawing by Willem van de Velde, 1676.
Bar shot fired during the Battle of Ronas Voe, discovered by Jack Edwardson in Heylor. Held by Shetland Museum & Archives.
The Hollanders' Graves

Having occurred 23 days after the signing of the Treaty of Westminster, it is likely to have been the final battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War.