Treaty of the Pyrenees

Peace of the PyreneesTreaty of Pyrenees1659annexedend of the warmade peacepeace treatythe peace the following yeartreaty of the PyrenéesTreaty of the Pyrénées
The Treaty of the Pyrenees (Traité des Pyrénées, Tratado de los Pirineos) was signed on 7 November 1659 to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War.wikipedia
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Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659)

Franco-Spanish WarFranco-Spanish War (1635–59)Franco-Spanish War (1635-1659)
The Treaty of the Pyrenees (Traité des Pyrénées, Tratado de los Pirineos) was signed on 7 November 1659 to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War.
Though some minor territorial gains were made by France, the Franco-Spanish War ended inconclusively in 1659 with the Treaty of the Pyrenees.

Condominium (international law)

condominiumBritish-French condominiumcondominiums
It was signed on Pheasant Island, a river island on the border between the two countries which has remained a French-Spanish condominium since the treaty.

Pheasant Island

Île des FaisansIsle of PheasantsFaisans
It was signed on Pheasant Island, a river island on the border between the two countries which has remained a French-Spanish condominium since the treaty.
The island is a condominium established by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, under joint sovereignty of Spain and France, and for alternating periods of six months is officially under the governance of the naval commanders of San Sebastián, Spain (1 February – 31 July) and of Bayonne, France (1 August – 31 January); in effect it is administered respectively by Irun (in Gipuzkoa, Spain) and Hendaye (in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France).

Cardinal Mazarin

MazarinJules MazarinCardinal Jules Mazarin
The kings Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain were represented by their chief ministers, Cardinal Mazarin and Don Luis Méndez de Haro, respectively.
On 7 November 1659 Spain signed the Treaty of the Pyrenees, which added Artois, the Cerdagne and Roussillon as new provinces of France.

Reapers' War

Catalan RevoltCataloniaReaper's War
By 1640, France began to interfere in Spanish politics, aiding the revolt in Catalonia, while Spain responded by aiding the Fronde revolt in France in 1648.
It had an enduring effect in the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), which ceded the County of Roussillon and the northern half of the County of Cerdanya to France (see French Cerdagne), splitting these northern Catalan territories off from the Principality of Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon, and thereby receding the borders of Spain to the Pyrenees.

Louis XIV of France

Louis XIVKing Louis XIVKing Louis XIV of France
The kings Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain were represented by their chief ministers, Cardinal Mazarin and Don Luis Méndez de Haro, respectively.
In 1660, Louis had married Philip IV's eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as one of the provisions of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees.

Philip IV of Spain

Philip IVPhilip III of PortugalKing Philip IV
The kings Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain were represented by their chief ministers, Cardinal Mazarin and Don Luis Méndez de Haro, respectively.
The Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, and the marriage of Philip's daughter Maria Theresa to the young King Louis XIV finally brought the war with France to a conclusion.

Luis Méndez de Haro

Luis de HaroLuis Méndez de Haro, 6th Marquis of Carpioanother nephew and heir
The kings Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain were represented by their chief ministers, Cardinal Mazarin and Don Luis Méndez de Haro, respectively.
Luis de Haro was the main Spanish negotiator of the Treaty of the Pyrenees on Pheasant Island in 1659.

Thirty Years' War

Thirty Years WarThirty Years’ War30 Years War
The Treaty of the Pyrenees (Traité des Pyrénées, Tratado de los Pirineos) was signed on 7 November 1659 to end the 1635–1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War.
In 1652 the French authorities renounced to Catalonia's territories south of the Pyrenees, but held control of Roussillon, thereby leading to the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, which finally ended the war between France and Spain, with the partition of restive Catalonia between both empires.

Perpignan

Perpignan, FrancePerpinyàCity of Perpignan
France gained Roussillon (including Perpignan) and the northern half of Cerdanya, Montmédy and other parts of Luxembourg, Artois and other towns in Flanders, including Arras, Béthune, Gravelines and Thionville, and a new border with Spain was fixed at the Pyrenees.
Again besieged and captured by the French during the Thirty Years' War in September 1642, Perpignan was formally ceded by Spain 17 years later in the Treaty of the Pyrenees, and from then on remained a French possession.

Flanders

FlemishVlaanderenFlemings
France gained Roussillon (including Perpignan) and the northern half of Cerdanya, Montmédy and other parts of Luxembourg, Artois and other towns in Flanders, including Arras, Béthune, Gravelines and Thionville, and a new border with Spain was fixed at the Pyrenees.
Western and southern districts of Flanders were confirmed under French rule under successive treaties of 1659 (Artois), 1668, and 1678.

Battle of the Dunes (1658)

Battle of the DunesDunkirkBattle of Dunkirk
After 23 years of war, an Anglo-French alliance was victorious at the Battle of the Dunes in 14 June 1658, but the following year the war ground to a halt when the French campaign to take Milan was defeated.
The victory at the Battle of the Dunes and its consequences would lead to the end of ten years of war with the signing of Treaty of the Pyrenees.

Habsburg Spain

SpainSpanishSpanish Habsburgs
France entered the Thirty Years' War after the Spanish Habsburg victories in the Dutch Revolt in the 1620s and at the Battle of Nördlingen against Sweden in 1634.
Spain agreed to the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659 that ceded to France Artois, Roussillon, and portions of Lorraine.

Cerdanya

CerdagneLa CerdanyaCerdaña
France gained Roussillon (including Perpignan) and the northern half of Cerdanya, Montmédy and other parts of Luxembourg, Artois and other towns in Flanders, including Arras, Béthune, Gravelines and Thionville, and a new border with Spain was fixed at the Pyrenees.
Cerdanya proper was split between Spain and France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659, with the north of Cerdanya becoming French, while the south of Cerdanya remained Spanish.

Cerdanya (comarca)

CerdanyaBaixa Cerdanyala Cerdanya
Because it was a villa, the historic town of Llívia, once the capital of Cerdanya, was thus unintentionally exempted from the treaty and became a Spanish exclave as part of the comarca of Baixa Cerdanya, in the Spanish province of Girona.
The area is sometimes called Baixa Cerdanya (literally "Lower Cerdanya") to distinguish it from Alta Cerdanya ("Upper Cerdanya") which was ceded to France by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659.

Principality of Catalonia

CataloniaCatalanPrincipality
After the Catalan Revolt, France had controlled the Principality of Catalonia from January 1641, when a combined Catalan and French force defeated the Spanish army at Battle of Montjuïc, until it was defeated by a Spanish army at Barcelona in 1652.
By the Treaty of the Pyrenees the Roussillon was ceded to France.

War of Devolution

1667–68Siege of CharleroiSpanish War of Devolution
This settlement was never paid, a factor that eventually led to the War of Devolution in 1668.
As part of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees that ended the Franco-Spanish War, Louis XIV married Maria Theresa, eldest daughter of Philip IV of Spain.

Gravelines

GravelineGravelines, France
France gained Roussillon (including Perpignan) and the northern half of Cerdanya, Montmédy and other parts of Luxembourg, Artois and other towns in Flanders, including Arras, Béthune, Gravelines and Thionville, and a new border with Spain was fixed at the Pyrenees.
It was finally annexed to France in the Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659.

Fronde

the FrondeLa FrondeFrondeurs
By 1640, France began to interfere in Spanish politics, aiding the revolt in Catalonia, while Spain responded by aiding the Fronde revolt in France in 1648.
A last desultory campaign followed in 1659—the twenty-fifth year of a conflict between France and Spain which had begun during the Thirty Years' War—and the peace of the Pyrenees was signed on 5 November.

Llívia

LliviaCerdanya
Because it was a villa, the historic town of Llívia, once the capital of Cerdanya, was thus unintentionally exempted from the treaty and became a Spanish exclave as part of the comarca of Baixa Cerdanya, in the Spanish province of Girona.
In 1659, the Treaty of the Pyrenees ceded the comarques of Roussillon, Conflent, Capcir, Vallespir, and northern Cerdanya ("Cerdagne") to the French Crown.

Artois

ArtesianHaute-Artois
France gained Roussillon (including Perpignan) and the northern half of Cerdanya, Montmédy and other parts of Luxembourg, Artois and other towns in Flanders, including Arras, Béthune, Gravelines and Thionville, and a new border with Spain was fixed at the Pyrenees.
The annexation was acknowledged during the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, and it became a French province.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty of WestphaliaTreaty of Münster1648
During the negotiations for the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, France gained the Sundgau and cut off Spanish access to the Netherlands from Austria, leading to open warfare between the French and Spanish.
Fighting continued between France and Spain until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659.

Roussillon

RosellónCatalancounty of Roussillon
France gained Roussillon (including Perpignan) and the northern half of Cerdanya, Montmédy and other parts of Luxembourg, Artois and other towns in Flanders, including Arras, Béthune, Gravelines and Thionville, and a new border with Spain was fixed at the Pyrenees.
After a protracted war, the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) secured Roussillon and part of the Cerdanya (Cerdagne) to the French crown, creating the French province of Roussillon.

Meeting on the Isle of Pheasants

At the Meeting on the Isle of Pheasants in June 1660, the two monarchs and their ministers met, and the princess entered France.
This had been agreed at an earlier meeting on the island, on 7 November 1659, which saw the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees by the chief ministers.

Northern Catalonia

North CataloniaCataloniaFrench Catalonia
Northern Catalonia (Catalunya (del) Nord ; Catalogne Nord ), French Catalonia or Roussillon refers to the Catalan-speaking and Catalan-culture territory ceded to France by Spain through the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 in exchange of France's effective renunciation on the formal protection given to the recently founded Catalan Republic.