A report on Treaty of the Pyrenees

Louis XIV and Philip IV of Spain at the Meeting on the Isle of Pheasants, June 1660
The geopolitical effects of the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659)
Medal celebrating the Treaty (1660)

Signed on 7 November 1659 on Pheasant Island, and ended the Franco-Spanish War that had begun in 1635.

- Treaty of the Pyrenees
Louis XIV and Philip IV of Spain at the Meeting on the Isle of Pheasants, June 1660

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Overall

The war was driven by long standing French attempts to strengthen their borders with Habsburg Spain (red) and Habsburg Austria (yellow)

Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659)

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Fought between France and Spain, with the participation of a changing list of allies through the war.

Fought between France and Spain, with the participation of a changing list of allies through the war.

The war was driven by long standing French attempts to strengthen their borders with Habsburg Spain (red) and Habsburg Austria (yellow)
The Spanish Road; Purple: Spanish dependencies; Green: Ruled by Austria; Orange: Ruled by Spain
Louis XIII, French ruler from 1610 to 1643
Philip IV of Spain, ruler from 1621 to 1665
Maria Theresa, whose marriage to Louis XIV was part of the peace negotiations
The Spanish retake Naples, April 1648; high taxes imposed to pay for the war led to revolt in October 1647
The Battle of Rocroi (1643) is often seen as the end of the battlefield supremacy of the tercios.

The second phase continued until 1659 when France and Spain agreed to peace terms in the Treaty of the Pyrenees.

Portrait of Louis XIV (Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701)

Louis XIV

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King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715.

King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715.

Portrait of Louis XIV (Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701)
Louis XIV as a young child, unknown painter
Baptismal certificate, 1638
Louis XIV in 1643, just before becoming king, by Claude Deruet
Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
1655 portrait of Louis, the Victor of the Fronde, portrayed as the god Jupiter
Royal Monogram
Engraving of Louis XIV
Louis and his family portrayed as Roman gods in a 1670 painting by Jean Nocret. L to R: Louis' aunt, Henriette-Marie; his brother, Philippe, duc d'Orléans; the Duke's daughter, Marie Louise d'Orléans, and wife, Henriette-Anne Stuart; the Queen-mother, Anne of Austria; three daughters of Gaston d'Orléans; Louis XIV; the Dauphin Louis; Queen Marie-Thérèse; la Grande Mademoiselle.
Louis XIV in 1670, engraved portrait by Robert Nanteuil
The future Philip V being introduced as king of Spain by his grandfather, Louis XIV
Louis XIV crosses the Lower Rhine at Lobith on 12 June 1672; Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Louis XIV, 1670, by Claude Lefèbvre
The Persian embassy to Louis XIV sent by Sultan Husayn in 1715. Ambassade de Perse auprès de Louis XIV, studio of Antoine Coypel.
Siamese embassy of King Narai to Louis XIV in 1686, led by Kosa Pan. Engraving by Nicolas Larmessin.
Louis receiving the Doge of Genoa at Versailles on 15 May 1685, following the Bombardment of Genoa. (Reparation faite à Louis XIV par le Doge de Gênes. 15 mai 1685 by Claude Guy Halle, Versailles.)
Louis XIV
Louis XIV in 1685, the year he revoked the Edict of Nantes
Protestant peasants rebelled against the officially sanctioned dragonnades (conversions enforced by dragoons, labeled "missionaries in boots") that followed the Edict of Fontainebleau.
Battle of Fleurus, 1690
Louis in 1690
Louis XIV at the Siege of Namur (1692)
Marshal de Luxembourg
Philip V of Spain
Louis in 1701
The Franco-Spanish army led by the Duke of Berwick defeated decisively the Alliance forces of Portugal, England, and the Dutch Republic at the Battle of Almansa.
The Battle of Ramillies between the French and the English, 23 May 1706
Map of France after the death of Louis XIV
Dual Cypher of King Louis XIV & Queen Marie Thérèse
Louis XIV encouraged Catholic missions through the creation of the Paris Foreign Missions Society
Painting from 1667 depicting Louis as patron of the fine arts
The Cour royale and the Cour de marbre at Versailles
Bust of Louis XIV by Gianlorenzo Bernini
Bronze bust of Louis XIV. Circa 1660, by an unknown artist. From Paris, France. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Le roi gouverne par lui-même, modello for the central panel of the ceiling of the Hall of Mirrors ca. 1680 by Le Brun, (1619–1690)
Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles
Louis XIV (seated) with his son le Grand Dauphin (to the left), his grandson Louis, Duke of Burgundy (to the right), his great-grandson Louis Duke of Anjou, and Madame de Ventadour, Anjou's governess, who commissioned this painting; busts of Henry IV and Louis XIII are in the background.
Territorial expansion of France under Louis XIV (1643–1715) is depicted in orange.
Royal procession passing the Pont-Neuf under Louis XIV

In 1660, Louis had married Philip IV's eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as one of the provisions of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees.

Portrait of Jules Mazarin by Pierre Mignard (1658)

Cardinal Mazarin

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Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician who served as the chief minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death in 1661.

Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician who served as the chief minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death in 1661.

Portrait of Jules Mazarin by Pierre Mignard (1658)
Mazarin carrying the peace agreement to the armies at Casale, crying "Peace! Peace!" (18th century engraving)
Mazarin as a papal envoy in Paris (1632)
Portrait of Cardinal Jules Mazarin by Simon Vouet (before 1649, private collection)
Anne of Austria with her children Louis XIV of France and Philippe, Duke of Orléans (unknown artist)
An anti-Mazarin cartoon from the Fronde (about 1650). The caption reads, "Despite Mazarin, the frondeurs assure the safety of the state."
Louis the Prince de Condé, leader of the second Fronde
Battle between the Fronde forces of the Prince de Conde and the army loyal to Anne of Austria and Mazarin
Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances
Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the enemy and successor of Fouquet
The wedding of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa. Mazarin is at their right.
Tomb of Mazarin in the Institut de France
Mazarin seated within the Gallery of his Palace (1659)
Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, by Raphael, purchased by Mazarin from Richelieu
Torelli's set design for Act 5 of Pierre Corneille's Andromède as performed at the Petit-Bourbon in 1650
Carved coat of arms of Mazarin on a bookcase in the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris
Laura Mancini, Duchess of Mercœur
Anne Marie Martinozzi, Princess of Conti
Olympia Mancini, by Pierre Mignard
Laura Martinozzi, Duchess of Modena
Marie Mancini, whom Louis XIV wished to marry
Hortense Mancini, Duchess Mazarin.
Marie Anne Mancini, who became Duchess of Bouillon.
Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances
Marie Mancini, whom Louis XIV wished to marry

On 7 November 1659 Spain signed the Treaty of the Pyrenees, which added Artois, the Cerdagne and Roussillon as new provinces of France.

Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain meeting on Pheasant Island for the Treaty of the Pyrenees.

Pheasant Island

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Uninhabited river island in the Bidasoa river, located between France and Spain, whose administration alternates between both nations.

Uninhabited river island in the Bidasoa river, located between France and Spain, whose administration alternates between both nations.

Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain meeting on Pheasant Island for the Treaty of the Pyrenees.
The island as seen from the Spanish side

The most important historical event to have taken place on the island was the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees.

Portrait of Philip IV in Fraga, by Diego Velázquez, c. 1644

Philip IV of Spain

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King Spain Philip IV gouden souverein Doornik 1633.jpg, gold souverain or 'Lion d'or', struck 1633 in Tournai under King Philip IV of Spain.

King Spain Philip IV gouden souverein Doornik 1633.jpg, gold souverain or 'Lion d'or', struck 1633 in Tournai under King Philip IV of Spain.

Portrait of Philip IV in Fraga, by Diego Velázquez, c. 1644
Philip pictured with his older sister, Anne in 1612 by Bartolomé González y Serrano
Painting of Philip IV of Spain in armor (1627–28) by Gaspar de Crayer (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Painting of a youthful Philip IV in 1623 by Diego Velázquez, displaying the prominent "Habsburg lip"
Philip IV's most prominent favourite and minister, the Count-Duke Olivares, by Diego Velázquez
Philip IV in Brown and Silver at the height of his success, painted c. 1631–32 by Diego Velázquez
Engraving of Philip IV
Philip dressed as a cuirassier, accompanied by a court dwarf, by Gaspar de Crayer
An older Philip IV, painted in 1656 by Diego Velázquez
Large gold coin minted in 1633, under the reign of Philip IV
Prince Baltasar Carlos with the Count-Duke of Olivares outside the Buen Retiro palace, by Diego Velázquez, 1636
María de Ágreda, a religious advisor to Philip IV during the second half of his reign
Portrait of Philip in France for his daughter, Maria Theresa

The Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, and the marriage of Philip's daughter Maria Theresa to the young King Louis XIV finally brought the war with France to a conclusion.

La Bataille des Dunes, Charles-Philippe Larivière

Battle of the Dunes (1658)

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Then the Spanish Netherlands.

Then the Spanish Netherlands.

La Bataille des Dunes, Charles-Philippe Larivière
Don Juan José de Austria, Spanish commander at Battle of the Dunes
Battle of the Dunes 1658 - 1698 engraving by Sebastian Beaulieu, showing the Spanish deployment at top and French below.
View of the Battle of Dunes from behind the Spanish lines Oil painting by Siméon Fort

Despite this victory, both the French and Spanish were financially exhausted by the long running war and negotiated the Treaty of the Pyrenees in November 1659.

Battle of Montjuïc (1641)

Reapers' War

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Conflict that affected a large part of the Principality of Catalonia between the years of 1640 and 1659.

Conflict that affected a large part of the Principality of Catalonia between the years of 1640 and 1659.

Battle of Montjuïc (1641)
Corpus de Sang (7 June 1640)
Pau Claris, President of the Generalitat during the first steps of the War
Allegory of the secession of Catalonia and its integration in to France
Map of Catalonia with the resulting division

It had an enduring effect in the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), which ceded the County of Roussillon and the northern half of the County of Cerdanya to France (see French Cerdagne), splitting these northern Catalan territories off from the Principality of Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon, and thereby receding the borders of Spain to the Pyrenees.

Habsburg Spain

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Contemporary historiographical term referred to the Spain of the 16th and 17th centuries when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central and Eastern Europe).

Contemporary historiographical term referred to the Spain of the 16th and 17th centuries when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central and Eastern Europe).

1570 map of the Iberian Peninsula
Arms of Charles I, representing his territories in Spain (top) and his other European possessions (bottom)
1570 map of the Iberian Peninsula
Conquest of Mexico, executed between Spanish and rival Indians.
A map of the dominion of the Habsburg monarchy following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green
Europa regina, associated with a Habsburg-dominated Europe under Charles V
The Iberian Union in 1598, during the reign of Philip II
The Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Spanish Road (1567–1620)
Siege of Haarlem (1572–73)
Spanish Fury at Antwerp, demonstration of Spanish military power as a leading world power at the time.
Routes of the Spanish Armada
Tlaxcalan codex with their new Government, including the Spaniard in the top tier. Full History of Tlaxcala, 1585.
Potosi, discovered in 1545, produced massive amounts of silver from a single site in upper Peru. The first image published in Europe. Pedro Cieza de León, 1553.
The last Inca leader, Túpac Amaru was executed in 1572 at the order of the Viceroy Francisco de Toledo.
Sir Francis Drake's voyage, 1585–86
Routes of early Spanish expeditions in the Philippines.
Collection of Philippine lantaka gunpowder weapons in a European museum
Spanish Empire of Philip II, III and IV including all charted and claimed territories, maritime claims (mare clausum) and other features.
King Philip III of Spain (r. 1598–1621)
King Philip IV of Spain (r. 1621–1665) by Diego Velázquez
The Battle of Rocroi (1643), the symbolic end of the greatness of Spain
Charles II, the last Habsburg king of Spain (r. 1665–1700)
An auto-da-fé, painted by Francisco Rizi, 1683
The expulsion of the Moriscos from Valencia
A Spanish galleon, the symbol of Spain's maritime empire
View of Zaragoza, 1647, by Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo
The Harvesters by Pieter Brueghel the Elder

Spain agreed to the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659 that ceded to France Artois, Roussillon, and portions of Lorraine.

Territory of the Principality of Catalonia until 1659. Location superimposed to current borders

Principality of Catalonia

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Medieval and early modern state in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.

Medieval and early modern state in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.

Territory of the Principality of Catalonia until 1659. Location superimposed to current borders
Wilfred the Hairy, depicted in the Genealogy of the Kings of Aragon, c. 1400
The County of Barcelona (in blue-grey) at the death of Ramon Berenguer III (1131)
Petronilla of Aragon and Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, dynastic union of the Crown of Aragon. 16th-century painting by Filippo Ariosto
James I the Conqueror
1702 compilation of Catalan Constitutions
Palau de la Generalitat, ancient seat of the Deputation of the General, located in Barcelona
Peter III of Aragon in the Coll de Panissars during the Aragonese Crusade
The Catalan's Revolt "Corpus of Blood" (7 June 1640)
The Battle of Montjuïc (1641), a decisive victory of the Franco-Catalan armies
Pau Claris, president of the Generalitat during the Reapers' War
The color shading shows the division between the Principality of Catalonia (present-Spain) and the counties of Roussillon and Cerdagne (present-France) divided in 1659
Fall of Barcelona, 11 September 1714
The Principality of Catalonia in 1608 by Jan Baptist Vrients
The Catalan Courts (parliament) in the 15th century, presided over by Ferdinand II of Aragon
Seal of the Deputation of the General or Generalitat of Catalonia, showing Saint George, the patron saint of this institution
Vegueries of Catalonia in 1304. Yellow and brown territories were lordships without a veguer
2014 reenactment of the Regiment of the Deputation of the General, part of the Army of Catalonia (1713-1714)
In grey, lands where Catalan is currently spoken
Fragment of the oldest existing copy of the Llibre dels Fets written in the original Catalan, dating from 1343. The scene depicts James I of Aragon with his lords planned the conquest of Majorca (1229)

By the Treaty of the Pyrenees the Roussillon was ceded to France.

Louis XIV visiting a trench during the war

War of Devolution

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In the 1667 to 1668 War of Devolution (Guerre de Dévolution, Devolutieoorlog), France occupied large parts of the Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comté, both then provinces of Spain.

In the 1667 to 1668 War of Devolution (Guerre de Dévolution, Devolutieoorlog), France occupied large parts of the Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comté, both then provinces of Spain.

Louis XIV visiting a trench during the war
Louis XIV visiting a trench during the war
Maria Theresa of Spain, whose unpaid dowry was used to justify the war
The Yser river, in Maritime Flanders; a good example of the geography in this area
Johan de Witt, Dutch Grand Pensionary; he had to persuade Louis to withdraw, while keeping him as an ally
Louis XIV, ca 1661
French gains by Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle: Louis returned Cambrai, Aire and Saint-Omer, but retained the rest

As part of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees that ended the Franco-Spanish War, Louis XIV of France married Maria Theresa, eldest daughter of Philip IV of Spain.