Treblinka extermination camp

TreblinkaTreblinka concentration campTreblinka IITreblinka death camp1943 uprising at the Treblinka concentration campa sketchcommemorative memorial to the victims of the Treblinka death campconcentration campdeath camp in Treblinkagas chambers of Treblinka
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II. It was located in a forest north-east of Warsaw, 4 km south of the Treblinka train station in what is now the Masovian Voivodeship.wikipedia
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Operation Reinhard

Aktion ReinhardAktion ReinhardtOperation Reinhardt
The camp operated between 23 July 1942 and 19 October 1943 as part of Operation Reinhard, the deadliest phase of the Final Solution.
As many as two million Jews were sent to Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka to be put to death in purpose-built gas chambers.

Treblinka, Masovian Voivodeship

Treblinkaon siteTreblinka Museum
It was located in a forest north-east of Warsaw, 4 km south of the Treblinka train station in what is now the Masovian Voivodeship.
Treblinka was the location of Treblinka extermination camp where an estimated 850,000 people were systematically murdered during the Holocaust in Poland.

Treblinka trials

First Treblinka Trialthe first German trialsTreblinka trial
In the same year the first German trials were held regarding war crimes committed at Treblinka by former SS members.
The two Treblinka trials concerning the Treblinka extermination camp personnel began in 1964.

Final Solution

Final Solution to the Jewish QuestionThe Final SolutionEndlösung
The camp operated between 23 July 1942 and 19 October 1943 as part of Operation Reinhard, the deadliest phase of the Final Solution.
Massacres of about one million Jews occurred before plans for the Final Solution were fully implemented in 1942, but it was only with the decision to annihilate the entire Jewish population that extermination camps such as Auschwitz II Birkenau and Treblinka were fitted with permanent gas chambers to kill large numbers of Jews in a relatively short period of time.

SS-Totenkopfverbände

TotenkopfverbändeSSDeath's Head Units
In the same year the first German trials were held regarding war crimes committed at Treblinka by former SS members.
The extermination camps' function was genocide; they included Treblinka, Bełżec, and Sobibór built specifically for Aktion Reinhard, as well as the original Chełmno extermination camp, and Majdanek which was fitted with mass killing facilities, along with Auschwitz.

Pyre

funeral pyrecremation pyrefuneral pyres
These bodies were exhumed in 1943 and cremated on large open-air pyres along with the bodies of new victims.
During WWII, pyres were used in German death camps on Polish territory, such as Treblinka.

Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland

GhettoJewish ghettoghettoised Jews
Following the invasion of Poland in 1939 most of the 3.5 million Polish Jews were rounded up and put into newly established ghettos by Nazi Germany.

Sobibor extermination camp

SobiborSobibórSobibór extermination camp
Treblinka was one of three secret extermination camps set up for Operation Reinhard; the other two were Bełżec and Sobibór.
Roughly 200,000 people were murdered at Sobibor, making it the fourth most deadly extermination camp, after Belzec, Treblinka, and Auschwitz.

Belzec extermination camp

BelzecBełżecBełżec extermination camp
Treblinka was one of three secret extermination camps set up for Operation Reinhard; the other two were Bełżec and Sobibór.
This makes it the third deadliest extermination camp, exceeded only by Treblinka and Auschwitz.

Sonderkommando

Sonderkommandosdeath detachmentforced to work
A small number of Jewish men who were not killed immediately upon arrival became its Jewish slave-labour units called Sonderkommandos, forced to bury the victims' bodies in mass graves.
The first revolt occurred at Treblinka on 2 August 1943 when 100 prisoners succeeded in breaking out of the camp.

Schutzstaffel

SSßNazi SS
Managed by the German SS and the Trawniki guards – enlisted voluntarily from among Soviet POWs to serve with the Germans – the camp consisted of two separate units.
During Operation Reinhard, run by officers from the Totenkopfverbände, who were sworn to secrecy, three death camps were built in occupied Poland: Bełżec (operational by March 1942), Sobibór (operational by May 1942), and Treblinka (operational by July 1942), with squads of Trawniki men (Eastern European collaborators) overseeing hundreds of Sonderkommando prisoners, who were forced to work in the gas chambers and crematoria before being murdered themselves.

Extermination camp

death campsdeath campextermination camps
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
By mid-1942, two more death camps had been built on Polish lands for Operation Reinhard: Sobibór (ready in May 1942) under the command of Hauptsturmführer Franz Stangl, and Treblinka (operational by July 1942) under Obersturmführer Irmfried Eberl from T4, the only doctor to have served in such a capacity.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
The survivors were likely exterminated at Bełżec, Sobibor, or Treblinka.

Chełmno extermination camp

ChełmnoChelmno extermination campChelmno
The method of killing was established following a pilot project of mobile extermination conducted at Soldau and at Chełmno extermination camp that began operating in 1941 and used gas vans.
At the very minimum, 152,000 people were killed in the camp, which would make it the fifth most deadly extermination camp, after Sobibór, Bełżec, Treblinka, and Auschwitz.

Odilo Globočnik

Odilo GlobocnikGlobocnikGauleiter'' Globocnik
Nazi plans to kill Polish Jews from across the General Government during Aktion Reinhard were overseen in occupied Poland by SS-Gruppenführer Odilo Globocnik, a deputy of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler in Berlin.
As an associate of Adolf Eichmann, he had a leading role in Operation Reinhard, which saw the murder of over one million mostly Polish Jews during the Holocaust in Nazi extermination camps Majdanek, Treblinka, Sobibór and Bełżec.

Warsaw Ghetto

WarsawGhettothe Ghetto
Treblinka was well-connected but isolated enough, halfway between some of the largest Jewish ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe, including the ghetto in Warsaw and the ghetto in Białystok, the capital of the newly formed Bezirk Bialystok. Unlike Polish Jews arriving in Holocaust trains from nearby ghettos in cities like Warsaw, Radom, and those of Bezirk Bialystok, the foreign Jews received a warm welcome upon arrival from an SS man (either Otto Stadie or Willy Mätzig), after which they were killed like the others.
In the summer of 1942 at least 254,000 Ghetto residents were sent to the Treblinka extermination camp during Großaktion Warschau under the guise of "resettlement in the East" over the course of the summer.

Siedlce

Shedlitz
It was later expanded and made into a branch of the Siedlce Regional Museum.
In August 1942 some 10,000 Siedlce Jews were deported to Treblinka and murdered there together with a similar number of Jews from three nearby transit ghettos: in Łosice, holding local Jews and families from Huszlew, Olszanka, and Świniarów; in Sarnaki, with Jews from Górki, Kornica, Łysów; and the third transit ghetto with prisoners from Mordy, Krzesk-Królowa Niwa, Przesmyki, Stok Ruski, and Tarków.

Majdanek concentration camp

MajdanekMaidanekMajdanek extermination camp
Alongside the Reinhard camps, mass killing facilities using Zyklon B were developed at the Majdanek concentration camp in March 1942, and at Auschwitz II-Birkenau between March and June.
In July 1942, Himmler visited Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka; the three secret extermination camps built specifically for the Nazi German Operation Reinhard purposed to eliminate Polish Jewry.

Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

occupied Polandoccupation of PolandGerman-occupied Poland
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Three secret extermination camps set up specifically for Operation Reinhard; Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor.

Białystok Ghetto

BiałystokBialystok GhettoGhetto
Treblinka was well-connected but isolated enough, halfway between some of the largest Jewish ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe, including the ghetto in Warsaw and the ghetto in Białystok, the capital of the newly formed Bezirk Bialystok.
Its inhabitants were transported in Holocaust trains to the Majdanek concentration camp and Treblinka extermination camps.

Cremation

crematedcrematoriaashes
Chełmno (German: Kulmhof) was a testing ground for the establishment of faster methods of killing and incinerating people.
During World War II (1939–45) Nazi Germany used specially built furnaces in at least six extermination camps throughout occupied Poland including at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Chełmno, Belzec, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, where the bodies of those murdered by gassing were disposed of using incineration.

Ivan the Terrible (Treblinka guard)

Ivan the TerribleIvan Marchenko
Many survivors of the Treblinka camp testified that an officer known as 'Ivan the Terrible' was responsible for operating the gas chambers in 1942 and 1943.
Ivan the Terrible is the nickname given to a notorious guard at the Treblinka extermination camp during the Holocaust, identified as Ivan Marchenko in statements made by other guards.

Grossaktion Warsaw

Großaktion WarschauGrossaktion Warschauliquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto
The mass deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto began on 22 July 1942 with the first shipment of 6,000 people.
From there, they were sent aboard overcrowded Holocaust trains to the extermination camp in Treblinka.

History of the Jews in Poland

Polish JewsPolish-JewishJewish
Following the invasion of Poland in 1939 most of the 3.5 million Polish Jews were rounded up and put into newly established ghettos by Nazi Germany.
Some six million Polish citizens perished in the war – half of those (three million Polish Jews, all but some 300,000 of the Jewish population) being killed at the German extermination camps at Auschwitz, Treblinka, Majdanek, Belzec, Sobibór, and Chełmno or starved to death in the ghettos.

Radom Ghetto

Radomin Radom
Unlike Polish Jews arriving in Holocaust trains from nearby ghettos in cities like Warsaw, Radom, and those of Bezirk Bialystok, the foreign Jews received a warm welcome upon arrival from an SS man (either Otto Stadie or Willy Mätzig), after which they were killed like the others.
A year and a half later, the liquidation of the ghetto began in August 1942, and ended in July 1944, with approximately 30,000–32,000 victims (men, women and children) deported aboard Holocaust trains to their deaths at the Treblinka extermination camp.