Tree

treessaplingarborealsaplingsStemstree species in the wildbig treeChampion treeserectevolution of trees
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.wikipedia
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Arecaceae

palmpalm treepalms
In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas, and bamboos are also trees.
Their growth form can be climbers, shrubs, trees and stemless plants, all commonly known as palms. Those having a tree form are colloquially called palm trees. They are flowering plants, a family in the monocot order Arecales.

Musa (genus)

MusabananaMusa'' (genus)
In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas, and bamboos are also trees.
Though they grow as high as trees, banana and plantain plants are not woody and their apparent "stem" is made up of the bases of the huge leaf stalks.

Bark (botany)

barktree barkperiderm
For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier.
Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs.

Shrub

shrubssubshrubbushes
They differ from shrubs, which have a similar growth form, by usually growing larger and having a single main stem; but there is no consistent distinction between a tree and a shrub, made more confusing by the fact that trees may be reduced in size under harsher environmental conditions such as on mountains and subarctic areas.
They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, and are usually under 6 m (20 ft) tall.

Yucca brevifolia

Joshua treeJoshua treesJoshua tree woodland
Certain monocots may be considered trees under a slightly looser definition; while the Joshua tree, bamboos and palms do not have secondary growth and never produce true wood with growth rings, they may produce "pseudo-wood" by lignifying cells formed by primary growth.
This monocotyledonous tree is native to the arid southwestern United States, specifically California, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada, where it is confined mostly to the Mojave Desert between 400 and 1,800 m elevation.

Trunk (botany)

trunkboletree trunk
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
In botany, the trunk (or bole) is the stem and main wooden axis of a tree, which is an important feature in tree identification, and which often differs markedly from the bottom of the trunk to the top, depending on the species.

Pinophyta

coniferconiferousconifers
There are about 1000 species of gymnosperm trees, including conifers, cycads, ginkgophytes and gnetales; they produce seeds which are not enclosed in fruits, but in open structures such as pine cones, and many have tough waxy leaves, such as pine needles.
The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs.

Deciduous

deciduous forestdeciduous treedeciduous trees
Trees are either evergreen, having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year, or deciduous, shedding their leaves at the end of the growing season and then having a dormant period without foliage.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.

Amborella

Amborella trichopodaA'''''mborellalesAmorella trichopoda
There are also some trees among the old lineages of flowering plants called basal angiosperms or paleodicots; these include Amborella, Magnolia, nutmeg and avocado, while trees such as bamboo, palms and bananas are monocots.
Amborella is a monotypic genus of understory shrubs or small trees endemic to the main island, Grande Terre, of New Caledonia.

Forest

forestsconiferous forestsforested
The number of trees in the world, according to a 2015 estimate, is 3.04 trillion, of which 1.39 trillion (46%) are in the tropics or sub-tropic s, 0.61 trillion (20%) in the temperate zones, and 0.74 trillion (24%) in the coniferous boreal forests.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.

Larch

LarixlarchesLarch Canker
Most conifers are evergreens, but larches (Larix and Pseudolarix) are deciduous, dropping their needles each autumn, and some species of cypress (Glyptostrobus, Metasequoia and Taxodium) shed small leafy shoots annually in a process known as cladoptosis.
Although they are conifers, larches are deciduous trees that lose their needles in the autumn.

Podocarpus

podocarpyellowwoodyellowwoods
In suitable environments, such as the Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, or the mixed podocarp and broadleaf forest of Ulva Island, New Zealand, forest is the more-or-less stable climatic climax community at the end of a plant succession, where open areas such as grassland are colonised by taller plants, which in turn give way to trees that eventually form a forest canopy.
Podocarpus are evergreen shrubs or trees, usually from 1 to 25 m tall, known to reach 40 m at times.

Eucalyptus

eucalypteucalyptus treeeucalypts
Temperate forest is also found in the southern hemisphere, as for example in the Eastern Australia temperate forest, characterised by Eucalyptus forest and open acacia woodland.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.

Evergreen

evergreen treeevergreen treesevergreens
Trees are either evergreen, having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year, or deciduous, shedding their leaves at the end of the growing season and then having a dormant period without foliage.
There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs.

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest

mixed foresttemperate broadleaf and mixed forestshardwood forest
In suitable environments, such as the Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, or the mixed podocarp and broadleaf forest of Ulva Island, New Zealand, forest is the more-or-less stable climatic climax community at the end of a plant succession, where open areas such as grassland are colonised by taller plants, which in turn give way to trees that eventually form a forest canopy.
The top layer of the understory is the sub-canopy composed of smaller mature trees, saplings, and suppressed juvenile canopy layer trees awaiting an opening in the canopy.

Crown (botany)

crowncrownstree crown
The crown is a name for the spreading top of a tree including the branches and leaves, while the uppermost layer in a forest, formed by the crowns of the trees, is known as the canopy.
The crown of a woody plant (tree, shrub, liana) is the branches, leaves, and reproductive structures extending from the trunk or main stems.

Secondary growth

primary growthsecondaryanomalous secondary thickening
In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height.
In woody plants, this process produces wood, and shapes the plant into a tree with a thickened trunk.

Taxodium

cypressbald cypressswamp cypress
Most conifers are evergreens, but larches (Larix and Pseudolarix) are deciduous, dropping their needles each autumn, and some species of cypress (Glyptostrobus, Metasequoia and Taxodium) shed small leafy shoots annually in a process known as cladoptosis.
They are large trees, reaching 100 - 150 ft tall and 2 - 3 m (exceptionally 11 m) trunk diameter.

Inosculation

inosculatedsiamese trees
The interconnections are made by the inosculation process, a kind of natural grafting or welding of vegetal tissues.
Inosculation is a natural phenomenon in which trunks, branches or roots of two trees grow together.

Subarctic

sub-arcticcircumpolarsouth of the Arctic
They differ from shrubs, which have a similar growth form, by usually growing larger and having a single main stem; but there is no consistent distinction between a tree and a shrub, made more confusing by the fact that trees may be reduced in size under harsher environmental conditions such as on mountains and subarctic areas.
Subarctic regions are often characterized by taiga forest vegetation, though where winters are relatively mild, as in northern Norway, broadleaf forest may occur—though in some cases soils remain too saturated almost throughout the year to sustain any tree growth and the dominant vegetation is a peaty herbland dominated by grasses and sedges.

Tropical rainforest

tropical rain foresttropical rainforeststropical
Tropical rainforests are among the most biodiverse habitats in the world.
The emergent layer contains a small number of very large trees, called emergents, which grow above the general canopy, reaching heights of 45–55 m, although on occasion a few species will grow to 70–80 m tall.

Betula pendula

silver birchbirchwhite birch
Similarly, the bark of the silver birch (Betula pendula) peels off in strips.
Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch, European white birch, or East Asian white birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes.

Elm

Ulmuselm treeelms
Dutch elm disease is caused by a fungus (Ophiostoma species) carried from one elm tree to another by various beetles.
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.

Vascular tissue

vascularvascular systemplant tissue
This trunk typically contains woody tissue for strength, and vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another.
In trees and other plants that develop wood, the vascular cambium allows the expansion of vascular tissue that produces woody growth.

Canopy (biology)

canopyforest canopytree canopy
The crown is a name for the spreading top of a tree including the branches and leaves, while the uppermost layer in a forest, formed by the crowns of the trees, is known as the canopy.
Sometimes the term canopy is used to refer to the extent of the outer layer of leaves of an individual tree or group of trees.