Triforium

triforiaarched gallerybiforiumchoir lofttriforium gallery
A triforium is an interior gallery, opening onto the tall central space of a building at an upper level.wikipedia
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Arcade (architecture)

arcadearcadesarcaded
Masonry triforia are generally vaulted and separated from the central space by arcades.
In the Gothic architectural tradition, the arcade can be located in the interior, in the lowest part of the wall of the nave, supporting the triforium and the clerestory in a cathedral, or on the exterior, in which they are usually part of the walkways that surround the courtyard and cloisters.

Clerestory

clerestoriesclerestoriedclerestorey
In a church, it opens onto the nave from above the side aisles; it may occur at the level of the clerestory windows, or it may be located as a separate level below the clerestory.
During the Romanesque period a third level was inserted between them, a gallery called the "triforium".

Romanesque architecture

RomanesqueRomanesque styleLate Romanesque
In Romanesque and Gothic buildings it is either a spacious gallery over the side aisles or is reduced to a simple passage in the thickness of the walls; in either case it forms an important architectural division in the nave of the cathedral or church, and being of less height gives more importance to the ground storey or nave arcade.
During the Romanesque period there was a development from this two-stage elevation to a three-stage elevation in which there is a gallery, known as a triforium, between the arcade and the clerestory.

Gothic architecture

GothicGothic styleLate Gothic
In Romanesque and Gothic buildings it is either a spacious gallery over the side aisles or is reduced to a simple passage in the thickness of the walls; in either case it forms an important architectural division in the nave of the cathedral or church, and being of less height gives more importance to the ground storey or nave arcade.
The grand arcades of columns separating the central vessel of the nave from the collateral aisles, the Triforium over the grand arcades, and the windows high on the walls allowing light into the nave were all also adapted from the Romanesque model.

Abbey

abbeysArchabbeynunnery
In the great cathedrals and abbeys the triforium was often occupied by persons who came to witness various ceremonies, and in early days was probably utilised by the monks and clergy for work connected with the church.
The triforium was omitted.

Architecture of cathedrals and great churches

Cathedral architecturecathedralsbasilica
*Cathedral architecture of the Western World

Gallery (architecture)

gallerygalleries
A triforium is an interior gallery, opening onto the tall central space of a building at an upper level.

Church (building)

churchchurcheschurch building
In a church, it opens onto the nave from above the side aisles; it may occur at the level of the clerestory windows, or it may be located as a separate level below the clerestory. In Romanesque and Gothic buildings it is either a spacious gallery over the side aisles or is reduced to a simple passage in the thickness of the walls; in either case it forms an important architectural division in the nave of the cathedral or church, and being of less height gives more importance to the ground storey or nave arcade.

Nave

navessingle-navesanctuary
In a church, it opens onto the nave from above the side aisles; it may occur at the level of the clerestory windows, or it may be located as a separate level below the clerestory. In Romanesque and Gothic buildings it is either a spacious gallery over the side aisles or is reduced to a simple passage in the thickness of the walls; in either case it forms an important architectural division in the nave of the cathedral or church, and being of less height gives more importance to the ground storey or nave arcade.

Blind arcade

blind arcadingblindblind arcades
Early triforia were often wide and spacious, but later ones tend to be shallow, within the thickness of an inner wall, and may be blind arcades not wide enough to walk along.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
The origin of the term is unknown but may be derived from Latin trans, "through", and foratum, "bored, drilled, cut", as it was a hollow passageway from one end of the building to the other, as suggested by the Trésor de la langue française. A derivation from Latin tres, three, and foris, door, entrance, might also be possible as in this passage the thoroughfares and doors were often in triangle shape as can be imagined from the triangular shape of this area, although the Lewis and Short Latin dictionary does not quote these words in combination, only separately.

Paganism

paganpagansheathen
The earliest examples of triforia are those in the pagan basilicas, where a triforium constituted an upper gallery for conversation and business; in the early Christian basilicas such a passageway was usually reserved for women, and the same applied to those in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Basilica

basilicasminor basilicabasilican
The earliest examples of triforia are those in the pagan basilicas, where a triforium constituted an upper gallery for conversation and business; in the early Christian basilicas such a passageway was usually reserved for women, and the same applied to those in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
The earliest examples of triforia are those in the pagan basilicas, where a triforium constituted an upper gallery for conversation and business; in the early Christian basilicas such a passageway was usually reserved for women, and the same applied to those in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern OrthodoxOrthodoxOrthodox Church
The earliest examples of triforia are those in the pagan basilicas, where a triforium constituted an upper gallery for conversation and business; in the early Christian basilicas such a passageway was usually reserved for women, and the same applied to those in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Aisle

aislesside aisleaisled
In a church, it opens onto the nave from above the side aisles; it may occur at the level of the clerestory windows, or it may be located as a separate level below the clerestory. In Romanesque and Gothic buildings it is either a spacious gallery over the side aisles or is reduced to a simple passage in the thickness of the walls; in either case it forms an important architectural division in the nave of the cathedral or church, and being of less height gives more importance to the ground storey or nave arcade.

Cathedral

cathedralscathedral churchproto-cathedral
In Romanesque and Gothic buildings it is either a spacious gallery over the side aisles or is reduced to a simple passage in the thickness of the walls; in either case it forms an important architectural division in the nave of the cathedral or church, and being of less height gives more importance to the ground storey or nave arcade.

Bay (architecture)

baysbaybayed
In consequence of its lesser height its bay was usually divided into two arches, which were again subdivided into two smaller arches and these subdivisions increased the apparent scale of the aisle below and the clerestory above.

Arch

archesround archarched
In consequence of its lesser height its bay was usually divided into two arches, which were again subdivided into two smaller arches and these subdivisions increased the apparent scale of the aisle below and the clerestory above.

Spandrel

spandrelsopen-spandrelopen spandrel
On account of the richness of its mouldings and carved ornament in the sculpture introduced in the spandrels, it became the most highly decorated feature of the interior, the triforium at Lincoln being one of the most beautiful compositions of English Gothic architecture.

Lincoln Cathedral

LincolnCathedralCathedral of Lincoln
On account of the richness of its mouldings and carved ornament in the sculpture introduced in the spandrels, it became the most highly decorated feature of the interior, the triforium at Lincoln being one of the most beautiful compositions of English Gothic architecture.

England

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿EnglishENG
In the 15th-century churches in England, when the roof over the aisles was comparatively flat, more height being required for the clerestory windows, the triforium was dispensed with altogether.

Vault (architecture)

vaultvaultedvaults
Masonry triforia are generally vaulted and separated from the central space by arcades.

Flying buttress

flying buttressesbuttressesflying
When the flying buttress was frankly adopted by the Gothic architect and emphasized by its architectural design as an important feature, other cross arches were introduced under the roof to strengthen it.