Trigeminal nerve

trigeminalCN VVcranial nerve Vfifth cranial nervetrigeminal systemtrigeminusnervus trigeminustrigeminal nervesfifth nerve
The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.wikipedia
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Ophthalmic nerve

ophthalmicophthalmic divisionophthalmic branch
Its name ("trigeminal" = tri-, or three, and - geminus, or twin: thrice-twinned) derives from the fact that each of the two nerves (one on each side of the pons) has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ), and the mandibular nerve (V 3 ). The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve—the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ) and the mandibular nerve (V 3 )—converge on the trigeminal ganglion (also called the semilunar ganglion or gasserian ganglion), located within Meckel's cave and containing the cell bodies of incoming sensory-nerve fibers.
The ophthalmic nerve (first division of fifth cranial nerve, ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve, first division of trigeminal nerve, CN V1, latin: nervus ophthalmicus) is the first branch of the trigeminal nerve.

Maxillary nerve

maxillarymaxillary divisionpalatine nerve
Its name ("trigeminal" = tri-, or three, and - geminus, or twin: thrice-twinned) derives from the fact that each of the two nerves (one on each side of the pons) has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ), and the mandibular nerve (V 3 ). The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve—the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ) and the mandibular nerve (V 3 )—converge on the trigeminal ganglion (also called the semilunar ganglion or gasserian ganglion), located within Meckel's cave and containing the cell bodies of incoming sensory-nerve fibers.
The maxillary nerve (CN V 2 ) is one of the three branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth (V) cranial nerve.

Mandibular nerve

mandibular divisionmandibular division of the trigeminal nervemandibular
Its name ("trigeminal" = tri-, or three, and - geminus, or twin: thrice-twinned) derives from the fact that each of the two nerves (one on each side of the pons) has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ), and the mandibular nerve (V 3 ). The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve—the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ) and the mandibular nerve (V 3 )—converge on the trigeminal ganglion (also called the semilunar ganglion or gasserian ganglion), located within Meckel's cave and containing the cell bodies of incoming sensory-nerve fibers.
The mandibular nerve (V 3 ) is the largest of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve (CN V).

Cranial nerves

cranial nervecranialCN
The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.
They are: the olfactory nerve (I), the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and hypoglossal nerve (XII).

Trigeminal ganglion

trigeminal gangliaGasserian ganglionSemilunar ganglion
The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve—the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ) and the mandibular nerve (V 3 )—converge on the trigeminal ganglion (also called the semilunar ganglion or gasserian ganglion), located within Meckel's cave and containing the cell bodies of incoming sensory-nerve fibers.
The trigeminal ganglion (or Gasserian ganglion, or semilunar ganglion, or Gasser's ganglion) is a sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) that occupies a cavity (Meckel's cave) in the dura mater, covering the trigeminal impression near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone.

Lingual nerve

linguallingual nervesnerve
Although it does not carry taste sensation (the chorda tympani is responsible for taste), one of its branches—the lingual nerve—carries sensation from the tongue.
The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V 3 ), which supplies general sensory innervation (not the gustative one) to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.

Pons

pontinePons Varoliiannular protuberance
Its name ("trigeminal" = tri-, or three, and - geminus, or twin: thrice-twinned) derives from the fact that each of the two nerves (one on each side of the pons) has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ), the maxillary nerve (V 2 ), and the mandibular nerve (V 3 ). From the trigeminal ganglion a single, large sensory root enters the brainstem at the level of the pons.
The alar plate produces sensory neuroblasts, which will give rise to the solitary nucleus and its special visceral afferent (SVA) column; the cochlear and vestibular nuclei, which form the special somatic afferent (SSA) fibers of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the spinal and principal trigeminal nerve nuclei, which form the general somatic afferent column (GSA) of the trigeminal nerve, and the pontine nuclei which relays to the cerebellum.

Medial pterygoid muscle

medial pterygoidmedialpterygoideus internus
The motor component of the mandibular division (V3) of the trigeminal nerve controls the movement of eight muscles, including the four muscles of mastication: the masseter, the temporal muscle, and the medial and lateral pterygoids.
The mandibular branch of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, innervates the medial pterygoid muscle.

Foramen ovale (skull)

foramen ovaleforamen
The ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branches leave the skull through three separate foramina: the superior orbital fissure, the foramen rotundum and the foramen ovale, respectively.

Tensor tympani muscle

tensor tympanitympanicTympanic muscle
Its motor function activates the muscles of mastication, the tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric.
Innervation of the tensor tympani is from the tensor tympani nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.

Dura mater

duraduralcovering of the spinal cord
The ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ) carries sensory information from the scalp and forehead, the upper eyelid, the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, the nose (including the tip of the nose, except alae nasi), the nasal mucosa, the frontal sinuses and parts of the meninges (the dura and blood vessels).
The supratentorial dura mater membrane is supplied by small meningeal branches of the trigeminal nerve (V1, V2 and V3).

Brainstem

brain stembrain-stemback of the skull
From the trigeminal ganglion a single, large sensory root enters the brainstem at the level of the pons.
At the level of the midpons, CN V (the trigeminal nerve) emerges.

Proprioception

proprioceptivekinestheticproprioceptors
The sensory function of the trigeminal nerve is to provide tactile, proprioceptive, and nociceptive afference to the face and mouth.
Proprioception of the head stems from the muscles innervated by the trigeminal nerve, where the GSA fibers pass without synapsing in the trigeminal ganglion (first-order sensory neuron), reaching the mesencephalic tract and the mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve.

Digastric muscle

digastricDigastricusanterior belly of the digastric muscle
Its motor function activates the muscles of mastication, the tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric.
The anterior body is supplied by the trigeminal via the mylohyoid nerve, a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve, itself a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.

Lateral pterygoid muscle

lateral pterygoidPterygoideus externuslateral
The motor component of the mandibular division (V3) of the trigeminal nerve controls the movement of eight muscles, including the four muscles of mastication: the masseter, the temporal muscle, and the medial and lateral pterygoids.
The mandibular branch of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, specifically the lateral pterygoid nerve, innervates the lateral pterygoid muscle.

Cerebellum

cerebellarcerebellar cortexcerebellar nuclei
Although much of this information is processed at an unconscious level (primarily by the cerebellum and the vestibular nuclei), some is available at a conscious level.
It receives proprioceptive input from the dorsal columns of the spinal cord (including the spinocerebellar tract) and from the cranial trigeminal nerve, as well as from visual and auditory systems.

Masseter muscle

masseterjaw muscleschewing muscle
The motor component of the mandibular division (V3) of the trigeminal nerve controls the movement of eight muscles, including the four muscles of mastication: the masseter, the temporal muscle, and the medial and lateral pterygoids.
Along with the other three muscles of mastication (temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid), the masseter is innervated by the anterior division of the mandibular division (V3) of the trigeminal nerve.

Temporal muscle

temporalistemporalis muscletemporal
The motor component of the mandibular division (V3) of the trigeminal nerve controls the movement of eight muscles, including the four muscles of mastication: the masseter, the temporal muscle, and the medial and lateral pterygoids.
As with the other muscles of mastication, control of the temporal muscle comes from the third (mandibular) branch of the trigeminal nerve.

Tensor veli palatini muscle

tensor veli palatinitensor palatitensor
Its motor function activates the muscles of mastication, the tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric.
The tensor veli palatini is supplied by the medial pterygoid nerve, a branch of mandibular nerve, the third branch of the trigeminal nerve - the only muscle of the palate not innervated by the pharyngeal plexus, which is formed by the vagal and glossopharyngeal nerves.

Special visceral efferent fibers

special visceral efferentBranchial efferentbranchiomeric
The trigeminal nerve also carries special visceral efferent (SVE) axons, which innervate the muscles of mastication via the mandibular (V3) division.
The only nerves containing SVE fibers are cranial nerves: the trigeminal nerve (V), the facial nerve (VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the vagus nerve (X) and the accessory nerve (XI).

Muscles of mastication

masticatory musclesmuscle of masticationface
The motor component of the mandibular division (V3) of the trigeminal nerve controls the movement of eight muscles, including the four muscles of mastication: the masseter, the temporal muscle, and the medial and lateral pterygoids. Its motor function activates the muscles of mastication, the tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric.
Unlike most of the other facial muscles, which are innervated by the facial nerve (or CN VII), the muscles of mastication are innervated by the trigeminal nerve (or CN V).

Foramen rotundum

The ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branches leave the skull through three separate foramina: the superior orbital fissure, the foramen rotundum and the foramen ovale, respectively.
The maxillary branch (V 2 ) of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) passes through and exits the skull via the pterygopalatine fossa and the foramen rotundum.

Jaw jerk reflex

jaw jerkmasseter reflex
The jaw jerk reflex is an example; tapping the jaw elicits a reflex closure of the jaw in the same way that tapping the knee elicits a reflex kick of the lower leg.
The jaw jerk reflex or the masseter reflex is a stretch reflex used to test the status of a patient's trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) and to help distinguish an upper cervical cord compression from lesions that are above the foramen magnum.

Spinal trigeminal nucleus

Spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nervespinal nucleusspinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve
From caudal to rostral (ascending from the medulla to the midbrain), they are the spinal trigeminal, the principal sensory and the mesencephalic nuclei.
In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) also convey pain information from their areas to the spinal trigeminal nucleus.

Nociceptor

nociceptorspain receptornociceptive
Pain-temperature fibers from peripheral nociceptors are carried in cranial nerves V, VII, IX and X. On entering the brainstem, sensory fibers are grouped and sent to the spinal trigeminal nucleus.
The cell bodies of these neurons are located in either the dorsal root ganglia or the trigeminal ganglia.