Triglyceride

triglyceridestriacylglyceroltriacylglycerolstriacylglyceridetriglycerolTAGtriacylglycerides37.656fatMedium chain triglycerides
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).wikipedia
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Vegetable oil

oilseedoilseedsoil
Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other vertebrates, as well as vegetable fat.
Like animal fats, vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides.

Fatty acid

fatty acidsfree fatty acidsfree fatty acid
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Fatty acids are usually not found in organisms, but instead as three main classes of esters: triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters.

Glyceride

glyceridesacetoglyceridesacylglycerides
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Glycerol has three hydroxyl functional groups, which can be esterified with one, two, or three fatty acids to form monoglycerides, diglycerides, and triglycerides.

Stearin

stearinetristearinglyceryl tristearate
Their names indicate the fatty acid: stearin derived from stearic acid, palmitin derived from palmitic acid, etc.
Stearin, or tristearin, or glyceryl tristearate is a triglyceride derived from three units of stearic acid.

Adipose tissue

adiposebody fatfat
Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other vertebrates, as well as vegetable fat. They are also present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils.
Ectopic fat is the storage of triglycerides in tissues other than adipose tissue, that are supposed to contain only small amounts of fat, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and pancreas.

Sebaceous gland

sebumsebaceous glandssebaceous
They are also present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils.
Sebaceous glands secrete the oily, waxy substance called sebum (fat, tallow) that is made of triglycerides, wax esters, squalene, and metabolites of fat-producing cells.

Oleic acid

oleicoleateoleoyl
Cocoa butter is unusual in that it is composed of only a few triglycerides, derived from palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids in the 1-, 2-, and 3-positions of glycerol, respectively.
Instead fatty acids like oleic acid occur as their esters, commonly triglycerides, which are the greasy materials in many natural oils.

Stearic acid

stearicoctadecanoic acidstearate
Their names indicate the fatty acid: stearin derived from stearic acid, palmitin derived from palmitic acid, etc. Cocoa butter is unusual in that it is composed of only a few triglycerides, derived from palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids in the 1-, 2-, and 3-positions of glycerol, respectively.
The important exceptions are the foods cocoa butter and shea butter, where the stearic acid content (as a triglyceride) is 28–45%.

Lipolysis

lipolyticfat metabolizationlipolyzed
In the intestine, following the secretion of lipases and bile, triglycerides are split into monoacylglycerol and free fatty acids in a process called lipolysis.
Lipolysis is the metabolic pathway through which lipid triglycerides are hydrolyzed into a glycerol and three fatty acids.

Palmitic acid

palmitatepalmitichexadecanoic acid
Their names indicate the fatty acid: stearin derived from stearic acid, palmitin derived from palmitic acid, etc. Cocoa butter is unusual in that it is composed of only a few triglycerides, derived from palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids in the 1-, 2-, and 3-positions of glycerol, respectively.
This remains the primary industrial route for its production, with the triglycerides (fats) in palm oil being hydrolysed by high temperature water (above 200 °C), and the resulting mixture fractionally distilled to give the pure product.

Lipase

lipaseslipase LIPFE1104
In the intestine, following the secretion of lipases and bile, triglycerides are split into monoacylglycerol and free fatty acids in a process called lipolysis.
Lipases perform essential roles in digestion, transport and processing of dietary lipids (e.g. triglycerides, fats, oils) in most, if not all, living organisms.

Chylomicron

chylomicronsULDLchylomicra
The triglycerides are rebuilt in the enterocytes from their fragments and packaged together with cholesterol and proteins to form chylomicrons. Triglycerides, as major components of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons, play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat.
Chylomicrons (from the Greek χυλός, chylos, meaning juice (of plants or animals), and micron, meaning small particle) are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides (85–92%), phospholipids (6–12%), cholesterol (1–3%), and proteins (1–2%).

Ester

estersesterificationmonoester
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
The reaction is widely used for degrading triglycerides, e.g. in the production of fatty acid esters and alcohols.

Pancreatic lipase family

pancreatic lipasePNLIPhuman pancreatic lipase
The pancreatic lipase acts at the ester bond, hydrolyzing the bond and "releasing" the fatty acid.
As the primary lipase enzyme that hydrolyzes (breaks down) dietary fat molecules in the human digestive system, it is one of the main digestive enzymes, converting triglyceride substrates like 1 found in ingested oils to monoglycerides 3 and free fatty acids 2a and 2b.

Tripalmitin

palmitin
Their names indicate the fatty acid: stearin derived from stearic acid, palmitin derived from palmitic acid, etc.
Tripalmitin is a triglyceride derived from the fatty acid palmitic acid.

Gluconeogenesis

gluconeogenicgluconeogenic pathwayglucogenic
As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source (unless converted to a ketone), the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose, via gluconeogenesis by conversion into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and then into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, for brain fuel when it is broken down.
From breakdown of proteins, these substrates include glucogenic amino acids (although not ketogenic amino acids); from breakdown of lipids (such as triglycerides), they include glycerol, odd-chain fatty acids (although not even-chain fatty acids, see below); and from other steps in metabolism they include pyruvate and lactate.

Bile

biliarybiliousgall
In the intestine, following the secretion of lipases and bile, triglycerides are split into monoacylglycerol and free fatty acids in a process called lipolysis.
Bile salt anions are hydrophilic on one side and hydrophobic on the other side; consequently, they tend to aggregate around droplets of lipids (triglycerides and phospholipids) to form micelles, with the hydrophobic sides towards the fat and hydrophilic sides facing outwards.

Saturated fat

saturated fatty acidsaturatedsaturated fats
Saturated fats are "saturated" with hydrogen — all available places where hydrogen atoms could be bonded to carbon atoms are occupied.
There are other pathways involving obesity, triglyceride levels, insulin sensitivity, endothelial function, and thrombogenicity, among others, that play a role in CVD, although it seems, in the absence of an adverse blood lipid profile, the other known risk factors have only a weak atherogenic effect.

Lipoprotein lipase

LPLlipoprotein
Special enzymes on the walls of blood vessels called lipoprotein lipases must break down triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol.
It is a water-soluble enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), into two free fatty acids and one monoacylglycerol molecule.

Carboxylic acid

carboxylcarboxyl groupcarboxylic acids
The glycerol molecule has three hydroxyl (HO–) groups and each fatty acid has a carboxyl group (–COOH).

Acetyl-CoA

acetyl CoAacetyl coenzyme Aacetyl-coenzyme A
Natural fatty acids found in plants and animals are typically composed of only even numbers of carbon atoms, reflecting the pathway for their biosynthesis from the two-carbon building-block acetyl CoA.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
Triglycerides, as major components of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons, play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat.
The fats are a large group of compounds that contain fatty acids and glycerol; a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid esters is called a triacylglyceride.

High-density lipoprotein

HDLHDL cholesterolhigh density lipoprotein
However, the relative negative impact of raised levels of triglycerides compared to that of LDL:HDL ratios is as yet unknown.
The lipids carried include cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides, amounts of each are quite variable.

Fasting

fastfastsfasted
These levels are tested after fasting 8 to 12 hours.
In the case of a lipid panel, failure to fast for a full 12 hours (including vitamins) will guarantee an elevated triglyceride measurement.

Very low-density lipoprotein

VLDLvery-low-density lipoproteinvery low density lipoprotein
Triglycerides, as major components of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons, play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat.
VLDL is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins.