Tripiṭaka manuscript from Thailand
Tripiṭaka manuscripts on Gold Plate, Burma
The woodblock of Tripiṭaka Koreana in Haeinsa, Hapcheon, South Korea.
Tripiṭaka writing
The Kuthodaw Pagoda, consisting of 729 stupas containing the world's largest book, the Tripiṭaka on marble tablets, at Mandalay, Myanmar.
Kangyur writing with gold
Pali Canon
Tripitaka Koreana
Tibetan Buddhist Tripitaka

Traditional term for ancient collections of Buddhist sacred scriptures.

- Tripiṭaka

299 related topics


Sutta Piṭaka

The Sutta Pitaka (or Suttanta Pitaka;

Tripiṭaka manuscript from Thailand

Basket of Discourse; cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक ) is the second of the three divisions of the Tripitaka or Pali Canon, the Pali collection of Buddhist writings of Theravada Buddhism.


7th-century Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator.

Painting of Xuanzang. Japan, Kamakura Period (14th century).
Statue of Xuanzang in the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an
Xuanzang's former residence in Chenhe Village near Luoyang, Henan.
Xuanzang describes colossal Buddhas carved into the rocks of Bamiyan region (above: 19th-century sketch, destroyed by the Taliban in 1990s).
Reconstructed route of Xuanzang over 629–645 CE through India. Along with Nalanda in Bihar, he visited locations that are now in Kashmir, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and Bangladesh.
Xuanzang describes thousands of monasteries and stupas in northwest India. Above: the ruins of Dharmarajika stupa, Taxila.
Xuanzang describes Ganges river with blue waters, who heretics believe carries "waters of blessedness", and in which a dip leads to expiation of sins.
Xuanzang describes Prayaga as a great city where Ganges and Yamuna meet, one where people ritually fast, bathe and give away alms.
Xuanzang visited Sravasti site (above), the place where the Buddha spent most of his time after enlightenment.
Statue of Xuanzang at Longmen Grottoes, Luoyang
Xuanzang Temple in Taiwan
An illustration of Xuanzang from Journey to the West, a fictional account of travels.
Golden statue of Xuanzang. Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an
Xuanzang Memorial Hall in Nalanda, Bihar, India.
thumb|Statue of Xuanzang. Great Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an.
Statue of Xuanzang in front of Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Xi'an

"Sanzang" is the Chinese term for the Buddhist canon, or Tripiṭaka ("Three Baskets"), and in some English-language fiction and English translations of Journey to the West, Xuanzang is addressed as "Tripitaka."

Vinaya Piṭaka

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

The (Sanskrit, Pali; ) is a Buddhist scripture, one of the three parts that make up the Tipiṭaka (lit.


Abhidharma (Sanskrit: 𑀅𑀪𑀺𑀥𑀭𑁆𑀫 ) or Abhidhamma (Sinhala: අභිධම්ම) are ancient (3rd century BCE and later) Buddhist texts which contain detailed scholastic presentations of doctrinal material appearing in the Buddhist sutras.

The Buddha preaching the Abhidharma in Trāyastriṃśa heaven.
Depiction of the First Council at Rajgir, a painting at the Nava Jetavana, Shravasti.
Buddhaghosa (c. 5th century), the most important Abhidhamma scholar of Theravāda, presenting three copies of the Visuddhimagga.
Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakośabhāsya is a major source in Tibetan and East Asian Buddhism.
Statue of Xuanzang, the Chinese monk who brought and translated many Yogācāra Abhidharma texts to China.

After the closing of the various Buddhist canons, Abhidharma texts continued to be composed, but now they were either commentaries on the canonical texts (like the Pali Aṭṭhakathās and the Mahāvibhāṣa), or independent treatises (śāstra) in their own right.


Aphorism or a collection of aphorisms in the form of a manual or, more broadly, a condensed manual or text.

A Sanskrit manuscript page of Lotus Sutra (Buddhism) from South Turkestan in Brahmi script
A manuscript page from Kalpa Sūtra (Jainism)
A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of ancient Panini Sutra, a treatise on grammar, found in Kashmir.

These teachings are assembled in part of the Tripiṭaka which is called the Sutta Pitaka.

East Asian Buddhism

Collective term for the schools of Mahāyāna Buddhism that developed across East Asia which follow the Chinese Buddhist canon.

Distribution of major Buddhist traditions, East Asian Mahayana in yellow
The Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum, which practice as well as its architecture was designed in accordance with the Chinese Buddhist canon, in Singapore.
Statue of Budai (Maitreya)
Tablets of the Tripiṭaka Koreana, an early edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon, in Haeinsa Temple, South Korea

Early Chinese Buddhism was influenced by translators from Central Asia who began the translation of large numbers of Tripitaka and commentarial texts from India and Central Asia into Chinese.

Taishō Tripiṭaka

The Taishō Tripiṭaka (Japanese: Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō; lit. “Taishō Revised Tripiṭaka”) is a definitive edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon and its Japanese commentaries used by scholars in the 20th century.

Buddhist texts

Buddhist texts are those religious texts which belong to the Buddhist tradition.

Illustrated Sinhalese covers and palm-leaf pages, depicting the events between the Bodhisattva's renunciation and the request by Brahmā Sahampati that he teach the Dharma after the Buddha's awakening.
Illustrated Lotus Sūtra from Korea; circa 1340, Accordion-format book; gold and silver on indigo-dyed mulberry paper.
Folio from a manuscript of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra depicting Shadakshari Lokesvara, early 12th century, Opaque watercolor on palm leaf.
Samyutagama Sūtra, Medieval China, 11th century
Burmese Pāli manuscript
Illuminated manuscript of a Jataka, the Story of Phra Malai's Visit to Heaven and Hell, Thailand, Bangkok style, 1813, ink, color and gold on paper, Honolulu Museum of Art
Burmese-Pali manuscript copy of the Buddhist text Mahaniddesa, showing three different types of Burmese script, (top) medium square, (centre) round and (bottom) outline round in red lacquer from the inside of one of the gilded covers
Frontispiece of the Chinese Diamond Sūtra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world
Sanskrit manuscript of the Heart Sūtra, written in the Siddhaṃ script. Bibliothèque nationale de France
A section from the Illustrated Sutra of Past and Present Karma (Kako genzai inga kyō emaki), mid-8th century, Japan
The Tripiṭaka Koreana, an early edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon
Image of leaves and the upper book cover of Thar pa chen po’i mod (The Sūtra of Great Liberation), showing Tibetan writings on black paper with an ink that contain gold, silver, copper, coral, lazurite, malachite, and mother of pearl. The unbound sheets are kept between two wooden boards covered with green brocade. The upper book cover shows the images of four of the Eight Medicine Buddhas.
Lama Yeshe Losal Rinpoche of Samye Ling Temple reads from prayer text.
Tibetan Buddhist manuscripts handmade with woodblock printing method by Tibetan buddhist monks of Tashilhunpo, Shigatse, Tibet in 1938

The first Buddhist texts were initially passed on orally by Buddhist monastics, but were later written down and composed as manuscripts in various Indo-Aryan languages (such as Pāli, Gāndhārī, and Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit) and collected into various Buddhist Canons.


Middle Indo-Aryan liturgical language native to the Indian subcontinent.

Burmese Kammavaca manuscript written in Pali in the 'Burmese' script.
19th century Burmese Kammavācā (confession for Buddhist monks), written in Pali on gilded palm leaf

It is widely studied because it is the language of the Buddhist Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka as well as the sacred language of Theravāda Buddhism.


Burmese Kammavaca manuscript written in Pali in the 'Burmese' script.

The Vinaya (Pali & Sanskrit: विनय) is the division of the Buddhist canon (Tripitaka) containing the rules and procedures that govern the Buddhist monastic community, or Sangha.