Triticeae glutens

Triticeae'' glutensglutenglutensLMW-gluteninSeed storage proteins in the Triticeae
Gluten is the seed storage protein in mature wheat seeds (and in the seeds of closely related species).wikipedia
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Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
Gluten is the seed storage protein in mature wheat seeds (and in the seeds of closely related species).
Glutens, especially Triticeae glutens, have unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties, which give dough its elasticity, helping it rise and keep its shape and often leaving the final product with a chewy texture.

Triticeae

wheatgrasses
The same, or very similar, proteins are also found in related grasses within the tribe Triticeae.
Seed storage proteins in the Triticeae are implicated in various food allergies and intolerances.

Wheat allergy

wheatBaker's asthmaWheat hypersensitivity
However all four proteins are involved in wheat allergies, and proteins from non-wheats may not be involved in certain gluten allergies, or in idiopathic sensitivities.
Nine subunits of LMW-glutenin have been linked in connection with wheat allergies.

Gliadin

Deamidated gliadin is produced by acid or enzymatic treatment of gluten.

Prolamin

prolamine
The prolamins of the tribe Triticeae, such as wheat gliadin, and related proteins (see Triticeae glutens) are known to trigger coeliac disease, an autoimmune condition, in genetically predisposed individuals.

Tissue transglutaminase

TGM2transglutaminase 2
Prolamins and to a lesser degree glutelins are excellent substrates for deamidation particularly by mammalian tissue transglutaminases (tTG).
Anti-transglutaminase antibodies result in a form of gluten sensitivity in which a cellular response to Triticeae glutens that are crosslinked to tTG are able to stimulate transglutaminase specific B-cell responses that eventually result in the production of anti-transglutaminase antibodies IgA and IgG.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Gluten is the seed storage protein in mature wheat seeds (and in the seeds of closely related species).

Tribe (biology)

tribesubtribetribes
The same, or very similar, proteins are also found in related grasses within the tribe Triticeae.

Aegilops speltoides

A. speltoidesAe. speltoidesspeltoides
What distinguishes bread wheat from these other grass seeds is the quantity of these proteins and the level of subcomponents, with bread wheat having the highest protein content and a complex mixture of proteins derived from three grass species (Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii strangulata, and Triticum monococcum).

Aegilops tauschii

Ae. tauschiitauschii
What distinguishes bread wheat from these other grass seeds is the quantity of these proteins and the level of subcomponents, with bread wheat having the highest protein content and a complex mixture of proteins derived from three grass species (Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii strangulata, and Triticum monococcum).

Einkorn wheat

einkornTriticum monococcumTriticum boeoticum
What distinguishes bread wheat from these other grass seeds is the quantity of these proteins and the level of subcomponents, with bread wheat having the highest protein content and a complex mixture of proteins derived from three grass species (Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii strangulata, and Triticum monococcum).

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitive
Triticeae glutens are primarily important to a developing definition 'gluten-free' in dietary treatments for gluten sensitivity which are intended to exclude pathogenic proteins from the diet of susceptible individuals (namely coeliac disease).

Coeliac disease

celiac diseaseceliac spruecoeliac
Triticeae glutens are primarily important to a developing definition 'gluten-free' in dietary treatments for gluten sensitivity which are intended to exclude pathogenic proteins from the diet of susceptible individuals (namely coeliac disease).

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
Because of the usefulness of wheat glutens, genetic studies have largely focused on wheat genetics.

Genome

genomesgenetic materialgenomic
Wheat has three genomes (AABBDD) and it can encode for many variations of the same protein, even in the gliadin subcategories many types of gliadin per cultivar, X = genome (A, B, or D genome chromosomes (1 to 7)).