Triticeae glutens

Triticeae'' glutensglutenglutensLMW-gluteninSeed storage proteins in the Triticeae
Gluten is the seed storage protein in mature wheat seeds (and in the seeds of closely related species).wikipedia
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Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
Gluten is the seed storage protein in mature wheat seeds (and in the seeds of closely related species).
Glutens, and most especially the Triticeae glutens, are appreciated for their viscoelastic properties, which give dough its elasticity, helping it rise and keep its shape and often leaving the final product with a chewy texture.

Triticeae

wheatgrasses
The same, or very similar, proteins are also found in related grasses within the tribe Triticeae.
Seed storage proteins in the Triticeae are implicated in various food allergies and intolerances.

Wheat allergy

Wheatallergic to wheatbaker's asthma
However all four proteins are involved in wheat allergies, and proteins from non-wheats may not be involved in certain gluten allergies, or in idiopathic sensitivities.
Nine subunits of LMW-glutenin have been linked in connection with wheat allergies.

Gliadin

Triticum (true wheats) – gliadins
Triticeae glutens

Prolamin

prolamine
prolamins – soluble in aqueous alcohol
Some prolamins, notably gliadin, and similar proteins found in the tribe Triticeae (see Triticeae glutens) may induce coeliac disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

Tissue transglutaminase

transglutaminase 2
Prolamins and to a lesser degree glutelins are excellent substrates for deamidation particularly by mammalian tissue transglutaminases (tTG).
Anti-transglutaminase antibodies result in a form of gluten sensitivity in which a cellular response to Triticeae glutens that are crosslinked to tTG are able to stimulate transglutaminase specific B-cell responses that eventually result in the production of anti-transglutaminase antibodies IgA and IgG.

Gluten immunochemistry

Immunochemistry of gluteninnate response to gliadinthis page
The immunochemistry of Triticeae glutens is important in several inflammatory diseases.

Anti-gliadin antibodies

AGAanti-gliadin IgGAntibodies to α-gliadin
Some of these antibodies can detect proteins in specific grass taxa such as Triticeae (Triticeae glutens), while others react sporadically with certain species in those taxa, or over many taxonomically defined grass tribes.

HLA DR3-DQ2

DR3-DQ2DR-DQSuper B8
With coeliac disease risk is increased with the consumption of Triticeae glutens, and this also increases risk in juvenile diabetes whereas other cereals also appear to play a role.

Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma

enteropathy-associated T cell lymphomalymphoma (EATL)
Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is environmentally induced as a result of the consumption of Triticeae glutens (e.g. wheat gluten).

Oat sensitivity

Oats
However, recently it has been found that AVAs drop as soon as Triticeae glutens are removed from the diet.

Anti-transglutaminase antibodies

anti-tissue transglutaminaseanti-TG2antitransglutaminase antibodies
An elevated number of diabetes patients have ATA along with increased numbers of gluten-specific T-cells.

Gluten-related disorders

gluten intolerancegluten-sensitive enteropathygluten sensitivity
Triticeae glutens are important factors in several inflammatory diseases.

Protein

proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
Gluten is the seed storage protein in mature wheat seeds (and in the seeds of closely related species).

Tribe (biology)

tribesubtribetribes
The same, or very similar, proteins are also found in related grasses within the tribe Triticeae.

Aegilops speltoides

A. speltoidesAe. speltoidesspeltoides
What distinguishes bread wheat from these other grass seeds is the quantity of these proteins and the level of subcomponents, with bread wheat having the highest protein content and a complex mixture of proteins derived from three grass species (Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii strangulata, and Triticum monococcum).

Aegilops tauschii

Ae. tauschiitauschii
What distinguishes bread wheat from these other grass seeds is the quantity of these proteins and the level of subcomponents, with bread wheat having the highest protein content and a complex mixture of proteins derived from three grass species (Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii strangulata, and Triticum monococcum).

Einkorn wheat

einkornT. monococcumprimitive wheat species
What distinguishes bread wheat from these other grass seeds is the quantity of these proteins and the level of subcomponents, with bread wheat having the highest protein content and a complex mixture of proteins derived from three grass species (Aegilops speltoides, Aegilops tauschii strangulata, and Triticum monococcum).

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitive
Triticeae glutens are primarily important to a developing definition 'gluten-free' in dietary treatments for gluten sensitivity which are intended to exclude pathogenic proteins from the diet of susceptible individuals (namely coeliac disease).

Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliac
Triticeae glutens are primarily important to a developing definition 'gluten-free' in dietary treatments for gluten sensitivity which are intended to exclude pathogenic proteins from the diet of susceptible individuals (namely coeliac disease).

Albumin

albuminsalbuminousalbumin protein
albumins – soluble in hypotonic solutions and are coagulated by heat

Globulin

globulinsserum globulinplasma globulins
globulins – soluble on 'isotonic' solutions

Glutelin

glutelins – are soluble in dilute acids or bases, detergents, chaotropic or reducing agents.

Acid

acidicacidityacids
glutelins – are soluble in dilute acids or bases, detergents, chaotropic or reducing agents.

Base (chemistry)

basebasicbases
glutelins – are soluble in dilute acids or bases, detergents, chaotropic or reducing agents.